Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
thermo regulation
is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within
certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different
ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
refers to the sense of touch.
The part of the human face or the forward part of the head of other vertebrates that contains the nostrils and organs of smell and forms the beginning of the respiratory tract.
The section of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx, where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.
The part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea, having walls of cartilage and muscle and containing the vocal cords enveloped in folds of mucous membrane.
A thin-walled, cartilaginous tube descending from the larynx to the bronchi and carrying air to the lungs. Also called windpipe
Either of two main branches of the trachea, leading directly to the lungs.
Any of the fine, thin-walled, tubular extensions of a bronchus.
small angular cavity or pit, such as a honeycomb cell
A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Also called air sac.
A muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities and functioning in respiration. Also called midriff
red blood cells
A cell in the blood of vertebrates that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues. In mammals, the red blood cell is disk-shaped and biconcave, contains hemoglobin, and lacks a nucleus. Also called erythrocyte, red cell, red corpuscle.
a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color; function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues; "fish have simpler hemoglobin than mammals"
The capacity of an embryo to continue normal development following injury to or alteration of a structure.
The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and contracts to force it into the aorta
Any of the muscular elastic tubes that form a branching system and that carry blood away from the heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body.
Any of the membranous tubes that form a branching system and carry blood to the heart
One of the minute blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules. These blood vessels form an intricate network throughout the body for the interchange of various substances, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, between blood and tissue cells.
A body cavity or chamber, especially either of the upper chambers of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle. Also called auricle
A membranous structure in a hollow organ or passage, as in an artery or vein, that folds or closes to prevent the return flow of the body fluid passing through it.
A group of animals that live, travel, or feed together.
the period of time when the heart relaxes after contraction
minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting
The clear, yellowish fluid portion of blood, lymph, or intramuscular fluid in which cells are suspended. It differs from serum in that it contains fibrin and other soluble clotting elements.
A colorless, pungent gas, NH3, extensively used to manufacture fertilizers and a wide variety of nitrogen-containing organic and inorganic chemicals.
A water-soluble compound, CO(NH2)2, that is the major nitrogenous end product of protein metabolism and is the chief nitrogenous component of the urine in mammals and other organisms.
uric acid
semisolid compound, C5H4N4O3, that is a nitrogenous end product of protein and purine metabolism and is the chief nitrogenous component of the urine in birds, terrestrial reptiles, and insects
Any of the numerous filtering units of the vertebrate kidney that remove waste matter from the blood
The act or process of filtering.
small intestines
The narrow, winding, upper part of the intestine where digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed by the blood. It extends from the pylorus to the cecum and consists of the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.
A pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins to form smaller polypeptide units.
Any of numerous enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters of phosphoric acid and are important in the absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides, and phospholipids and in the calcification of bone.
Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of fats into glycerol and fatty acids
Any of a group of enzymes that are present in saliva, pancreatic juice, and parts of plants and catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives.
A bitter, alkaline, brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow fluid that is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum and aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats.
A large, reddish-brown, glandular vertebrate organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity that secretes bile and is active in the formation of certain blood proteins and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
gall bladder
A small, pear-shaped muscular sac, located under the right lobe of the liver, in which bile secreted by the liver is stored until needed by the body for digestion.
large intestines
the last part of the digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals
the first portion of the small intestine, from the stomach to the jejunum
the organic process in which the substance of some differentiated structure that has been produced by the body undergoes lysis and assimilation
cleanse so as to destroy or prevent the growth of disease-carrying microorganisms
A substance, such as saliva, mucus, tears, bile, or a hormone, that is secreted.
Maintenance of an optimal, constant osmotic pressure in the body of a living organism.
gastric juice
The colorless, watery, acidic digestive fluid that is secreted by various glands in the mucous membrane of the stomach and consists chiefly of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, rennin, and mucin.
The thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue that folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during the act of swallowing
The portion of the digestive canal between the pharynx and stomach, consisting of a cervical part from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet, a thoracic part from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm, and an abdominal part below the diaphragm to the stomach.
genetics, a relationship between non-alleles considered to be a form of epistasis.
The inactive or nearly inactive precursor of an enzyme, converted into an active enzyme by proteolysis
The cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the oropharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue, gums, and teeth.
The portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed within the cranium, continuous with the spinal cord, and composed of gray matter and white matter.
spinal cord
The thick, whitish cord of nerve tissue that extends from the medulla oblongata down through the spinal column and from which the spinal nerves branch off to various parts of the body.
reflex arc
The neural path of a reflex.
Of, relating to, or controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
Of, relating to, or affecting the body, especially as distinguished from a body part, the mind, or the environment; corporeal or physical
branched protoplasmic extension of a nerve cell that conducts impulses from adjacent cells inward toward the cell body
threadlike process of a neuron, especially the prolonged axon that conducts nerve impulses.
The junction across which a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.
myelin sheath
The insulating envelope of myelin that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber or axon and facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that allow the movement of information from one neuron across the gap between it and the adjacent neuron
action potential
A momentary change in electrical potential on the surface of a cell, especially of a nerve or muscle cell, that occurs when it is stimulated, resulting in the transmission of an electrical impulse.
The restoration of a polarized state across a membrane, as in a muscle fiber following contraction.
To cause an increase in polarity, as across a biological membrane.
skeletal muscle
A usually voluntary muscle made up of elongated, multinucleated, transversely striated muscle fibers, having principally bony attachments. Also called striated muscle.
smooth muscle
Muscle tissue that contracts without conscious control, having the form of thin layers or sheets made up of spindle-shaped, unstriated cells with single nuclei and found in the walls of the internal organs, such as the stomach, intestine, bladder, and blood vessels, excluding the heart.
cardiac muscle
The specialized striated muscle tissue of the heart; the myocardium.
One of the segments into which a fibril of striated muscle is divided.
sacroplasmic reticulum
The sarcoplasmic reticulum contains large stores of calcium, which it sequesters and then releases when the cell is depolarised
The commonest protein in muscle cells, responsible for the elastic and contractile properties of muscle. It combines with actin to form actomyosin.
A calcium-regulated protein in muscle tissue occurring in three subunits with tropomyosin.
The membranous tissue forming the external covering or integument of an animal and consisting in vertebrates of the epidermis and dermis.
symbiotic bacteria
are bacteria living in symbiosis with another organism or each other
t cells
Any of the lymphocytes that mature in the thymus and have the ability to recognize specific peptide antigens through the receptors on their cell surface.
Something added to complete a thing, make up for a deficiency, or extend or strengthen the whole.
A substance, such as penicillin or streptomycin, produced by or derived from certain fungi, bacteria, and other organisms, that can destroy or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Antibiotics are widely used in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
Inoculation with a vaccine in order to protect against a particular disease.
The part of the brain that lies below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate bodily temperature, certain metabolic processes, and other autonomic activities.
polypeptide hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans and functioning in the regulation of the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, especially the conversion of glucose to glycogen, which lowers the blood glucose level.
long, irregularly shaped gland in vertebrates, lying behind the stomach, that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum and insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin into the bloodstream
substance, usually a peptide or steroid, produced by one tissue and conveyed by the bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity, such as growth or metabolism.
A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress, as from fear or injury
Any of numerous naturally occurring or synthetic fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms arranged in four rings and including the sterols and bile acids, adrenal and sex hormones, certain natural drugs such as digitalis compounds, and the precursors of certain vitamins.
The bodily structure of a plant or an animal or of any of its parts.
The usually paired female or hermaphroditic reproductive organ that produces ova and, in vertebrates, estrogen and progesterone.
A hollow muscular organ located in the pelvic cavity of female mammals in which the fertilized egg implants and develops
A neck-shaped anatomical structure, such as the narrow outer end of the uterus
A female gamete; an ovum
long, narrow, convoluted tube, part of the spermatic duct system, that lies on the posterior aspect of each testicle, connecting it to the vas deferens
A male gamete or reproductive cell
Formation and development of spermatozoa by meiosis and spermiogenesis.
Any of several steroid hormones produced chiefly by the ovaries and responsible for promoting estrus and the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics.
Discharge of an ovum or ovule from the ovary
The act or process of initiating biological reproduction by insemination or pollination.
An embryo at the stage following the blastula, consisting of a hollow, two-layered sac of ectoderm and endoderm surrounding an archenteron that communicates with the exterior through the blastopore.
The formation and development of the organs of living things.
The outermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo, from which the epidermis, nervous tissue, and, in vertebrates, sense organs develop.
The middle embryonic germ layer, lying between the ectoderm and the endoderm, from which connective tissue, muscle, bone, and the urogenital and circulatory systems develop
Movement or activity of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light.
The responsive movement of a free-moving organism or cell toward or away from an external stimulus, such as light.
social animals, fighting and escape behavior common in males during the rutting season.