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26 Cards in this Set

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What are the biologically important groups of lipids?
Neutral fats
Conjugated lipids
Sterols
What are neutral fats?
Fatty acids in form of triglycerides
What are conjugated lipids?
Phosphate or sugar group added to lipid molecule; integral part of cell wall structure
What are sterols?
Building blocks in cells & membranes; constituents of hormones
What are triglycerides?
3 fatty acid molecules esterified to a single glycerol molecule
What is a lipoprotein?
lipid complex + specialized proteins
What is apoA1?
HDL
What is apoB?
LDL
What do apolipoproteins do?
aid in solubilization of lipids and in transfer of lipids from GI tract to liver
What are the types of lipoproteins?
Chylomicrons
VLDL
IDL
LDL
HDL
What lipoprotein contains the most plasma cholesterol?
LDL
The least dense proteins are those that contain the most what?
triglycerides
What lipoprotein contains triglyceride in fasting plasma?
VLDL
What does the exogenous pathway do?
Absorption of TGL & Cholesterol through the intestine
What does the endogenous pathway do?
Synthesis of TGL from fatty acids by liver
What does a serum sample with uniform turbidity indicate?
Increased VLDL without chylomicrons
What does a "cream" & turbid serum sample indicate?
increased VLDL, increased chylomicrons
What does a "cream" & clear serum sample indicate?
increased chylomicrons, no excess VLDL
What is the calculation for LDL?
Total cholesterol - HDL - (Triglycerides/5)
What is the goal LDL for patients with CHD/CHD risk?
below 100 mg/dL
For patients with 0-1 risk factor, at what LDL level should drug therapy be considered?
190 mg/dL
What is lipoprotein (a)?
Specialized form of LDL that is assembled extracellularly from apolipoprotein (a) and LDL; structurally similar to plasminogen
What is the action of lipoprotein (a)?
Interferes with fibrinolysis by competing with plasminogen binding to plasminogen receptors, fibrinogen, and fibrin
What is the net effect of lipoprotein (a)?
impaired plasminogen activation and plasmin generation at the thrombus surface, leading to decreased thrombolysis
What is homocysteine?
an intermediary amino acid formed by the conversion of methionine to cysteine
What are the histopathologic hallmarks of homocysteine-induced vascular injury?
intimal thickening
elastic lamina disruption
smooth muscle hypertrophy
marked platelet accumulation
formation of platelet-enriched occlusive thrombi