Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/75

Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prehistory
-the time period before people kept written records
The Old Stone Age
-about two million years ago
-also known as the Paleolithic age
-people lived by hunting animals and gathering whild foods
The New Stone Age
-also known as the Neolithic age
-the invention of tools
-the taming of fire
-the development of language
artifacts
-objects made by people
-includes ancient tools, pottery, jewelry, or weapons
-serve as clues to the past
culture
- a peoples unique way of life
fossils
-traces of ancient animal and plant life preserved in rock
carbon-14 dating
-developed by American chemist, Willard Libby
-depends on the fact that all living organisms contain a certain amount of a radioactive material called carbon 14
-when an animal or plan dies, carbon 14 starts to decrease at a fixed rate
-helps scientists determine approximate age
Cro-Magnons
-first human beings to have all the physical characteristics of modern people
nomads
-people who wander from place to place rather than making permanent settlements
homo-sapiens
-early humans
-means "thinking man"
-brain was 2/3 the size of modern people
rituals
-ceremonies were performed by early humans
-evidence of religion
-burial rituals that involved placing tools, ornaments, food and flowers in the graves of their dead
cave paintings
-artwork done by early humans
-paintings of bison, deer, horses, and other animals
-Altamira is a widely known cave that displayed the art
Ice Age
-occurred over millions of years ago
-about four long cold periods
-earth covered with sheets of thick ice
-reached its height 20,000 years ago, and got warmer about 10,000 years ago
glaciers
-huge, slow moving sheets of ice
The Agricultural Revolution
-the start of farming
-hunting became less reliable, people started to settle in more permanent settlements
-protected crops, domesticated animals
artisans
-person specialized in a particular set of skills or specific craft
-led to a division of labor
Catal Huyuk
-a series of settlements existed in this large village around 6000 b.c.
-in the Middle East, in what is now modern day Turkey
-grew wheat and barley, hunted wild animals
-bartered jewelry, had many artisans
-built flat roof houses
-average lifespan was 30yrs old
Technology:
-new how to use animals for labor
-pottery, weaving, animals: skins for clothing
-metalworking: copper tools
-Bronze Age: copper and tin
The Bronze Age
-used to describe period when bronze replaced copper and stone as the main material used in tools and weapons
Civilization
-an advanced level of culture
-usually have 5 features:
-organized government
-organized religion
-division of labor
-class structure
-a system of wriing
theocracies
-ruled by priest-kings
River Valley Civilizations
-first civilizations formed in river valleys in Asia and Africa
-Mesopotamia around 3500 b.c between Tigris and Euphrates rivers
-Egypt developed near the Nile
-India emerged in Indus Valley
-Chinese civilization grew up along the Yellow River, aka the Huang
Chapter 1 summary
1. the people of the Old Stone Age lived by hunting and gathering their food. They also made some remarkable advances- making tools, controlling and using fire, and developing spoken language
2. the new stone age began about 10,000 years ago, at about the same time that the last Ice Age ended. People in different parts of the world began to plant crops, domesticate animals, and establish villages. Late in the New Stone Age, artisans in the Middle East learned to work with metals.
3. In four river valleys in Africa and Asia, farming villages gradually grew into cities. As cities developed, so did organized government and religion, a division of labor, social classes, and sstems of writing. In this way, the first civilizations were born.
Code of Hammurabi
The laws of Hammurabi (ruler of Babylon 1792-1750 B.C.), which were carved on a block of stone and displayed as a lasting record.
Behisun Rock
A cliff in what is now western Iran, which provided the key to cuneiform.
Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom
The three periods in Egypt where there was a strong dynasty.
Rosetta Stone
A stone tablet carved in 196 B.C., containing inscriptions in three kinds of writing-hieroglyphics, a more recent Egyptian script, and Greek.
Code of Hammurabi
The laws of Hammurabi (ruler of Babylon 1792-1750 B.C.), which were carved on a block of stone and displayed as a lasting record.
Iron Age
The period folowing the Bronze Age when knowledge of ironworking spread.
Behisun Rock
A cliff in what is now western Iran, which provided the key to cuneiform.
Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom
The three periods in Egypt where there was a strong dynasty.
Code of Hammurabi
The laws of Hammurabi (ruler of Babylon 1792-1750 B.C.), which were carved on a block of stone and displayed as a lasting record.
Rosetta Stone
A stone tablet carved in 196 B.C., containing inscriptions in three kinds of writing-hieroglyphics, a more recent Egyptian script, and Greek.
Behisun Rock
A cliff in what is now western Iran, which provided the key to cuneiform.
Iron Age
The period folowing the Bronze Age when knowledge of ironworking spread.
Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom
The three periods in Egypt where there was a strong dynasty.
Rosetta Stone
A stone tablet carved in 196 B.C., containing inscriptions in three kinds of writing-hieroglyphics, a more recent Egyptian script, and Greek.
Iron Age
The period folowing the Bronze Age when knowledge of ironworking spread.
Exodus
The flight of the Hebrews, led by Moses, from Egypt to Canaan in about 1290 B.C.
Judaism
The Hebrew religion.
Torah
The Hebrew name for the first five books of the bible.
Zoroastrianism
A religion founded by the Persian teacher Zoroaster in the sixth century B.C.; it was based on the belief in the struggle between the forces of good and evil.
Vedas
Four sacred Indian texts that include collections of hymns, prayers, explanations of religious rituatls, and wise sayings.
caste
In Hindu society, a fixed social grouping based on class, occupation, and tradition.
Hinduism
The faith of most of India's people, characterized by the goal of returning to Brahman through reincarnation.
Upanishads
A famous collection of writings (Vedas) that discuss basic ideas about right and wrong, the universal order, and human destiny.
Mandate of Heaven
The early Chinese belief that rulers needed the gods' approval to stay in power.
feudalism
a political system in which a king granted the use of land to nobles in return for loyalty, military assistance, and services.
Sargon the Great
-Ruler of Akkad in 2300s B.C. who created the world's first empire.
Hammurabi
Babylonian ruler who developed a strict code of laws in 18th century B.C.
Menes
Egyptian pharaoh who estaglished the first dynasty in the 3100s B.C.
Hatshepsut
Egyptian Queen, ruled in 1400s B.C.
Akhenaton
Egyptian pharaoh and religious reformer in 1375-58 B.C. Suggested idea or one ruler, Aton, but idea was not popular.
Rameses II
Egyptian pharaoh (ruled 1303-1237 B.C.) who ruled during the Hebrew's exodus from Egypt.
Moses
Hebrew prophet and lawgiver ( 13th Century B.C.)
Ashurbanibal
Ruler of the Assyrian Empire ( 669-26 B.C.)
Nebuchadnezzar
King of Babylon who conquered much of the Fertile Cresent. (630-562 B.C.)
Cyrus the Great
Persian leader and founder of the Persian Empire.
Confucius
Chinese philosopher
Sumer: the Sumerians
Sumer was an area in Southern Mesopotamia (now Southern Iraq) where the world's first advanced civilization arose.
Hittites
Discovered how to make iron and ironworking to make spears and weapons.
Phoenicians
First to start working with an alphabet system. Known also for seafaring.
Hebrews/Israelites
Believed in one God; Judaism; Torah. Stressed fairness and justice; sit up strict rules for behavior and religious observances.
Assyrians
Ruler, Ashurbanipal, built a library in Nineveh. Had an efficient form of government.
Lydians
Started the use of coins and made it popular. This is where the idea of a money economy started.
Persians
Known for uniting all the middle eastern peoples. They had an efficient form of government, and also known for Zoroastriniasm.
Shang Dynasty
The first settled Chinese people along the Yellow River Valley. Also had the first known writing system in China start here.
Zhou Dynasty
believed in the mandate of heaven; the development of feudalism.
Altamira
a cave in which prehistori call paintings were discovered in 1879; located near Santander in northern Spain.
Lascaux
a famous cave near the town of Montignac, in central France, where wall paintings from the Old Stone Age were found in 1940.
Catal Huyuk
a village of the New Stone Age, located near what is now the city of Konya in South central turkey.
Mesopotamia
a region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, home to the earliest of the great river valley civilizations; now part of Iraq.
Egypt
an acient African kingdom centered on the nile valley, covering about the area of modern Egypt, and parts of modern Sudan.
Canaan
the home of the ancient Israelites in Palestine; now the part of Palestine west of the Jordan River.
Jerusalem
The capital of the ancient kingdom and the modern state of Israel.
Babylon
a city on the Euphrates River ruled by Hammurabi when he conquered and united Mesopotamia in 1792 B.C.; its remains are near modern Hilla in central Iraq.