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51 Cards in this Set

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Kellogg-Briand Pact
ammendment to the League of Nations; Germany and Japan didn't sign. 1928 renounces war as the instrument of national policy
Maginot Line
doesn't work b/c turrets don't turn 360; Germany goes through the forest and comes up behind the wall; built by France to protect its border from Germany
Marie Curie
found that atoms of cetain elements spontaneously release charged particles, radioactivity; female scientist
Black Shirts
organized by Mussolini and broke up socialist rallies, smashed leftist presses, and attacked farmer's cooperatives; made Italy a totalitarian state
Il Duce
the name Mussolini takes that means "The Leader"
Ruhr Valley
occupied by France when Germany fell behind in reparations payments; basically Alsace-Lorraine; caused huge inflation
Dawes Plan
France withdrew forces from Ruhr; reduced reparations payment
Mein Kampf
"My Struggle" by Hitler in prison for being drunk in public; basic book of Nazi goals and ideaology
Third Reich
Hitler boasted the Third Reich would dominate Europe for 1,000 years
Gestapo
Hitler's secret police
Nuremberg Laws
1935; placed restrictions on Jews, like attending or teaching German universities; holding gov't jobs, doctors, or lawyers; publishing books; and prohibited from marrying Non Jews
Kristallnacht
Nov 9 & 10; "Night of Broken Glass"; Nazis attacked Jewish stores and synagogues and beat Jews up
chancellor
prime minister
repudiate
reject
concentration camp
detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state
Haile Selassie
Ethiopian king during the Italian invasion under Mussolini; turned to League of Nations for help; Italy conquered Ethiopia because League of Nations could not enforce the sanctions it put against Italy
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
Germany, Italy, and Japan joined together to fight Soviet communism and not to interfere with each other's plans for expansion
Guernica
Germany launched an "experiment" onto this Spanish market town to see what their new plans could do; killed thousands of innocent people
Munich Conference
1938; British and French leaders chose appeasement and gave Sudetenland to Germany; he later took over all of Czechoslovakia
Neville Chamberlain
the British prime minister before Churchill who was present at the Munich Conference and thought appeasement would bring peace
Nazi-Soviet Pact
August 1939; a nonaggression pact between Hitler and Stalin; bound both to peaceful relations; also nto to fight if the other went to war and to divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe
sanction
penalties
appeasement
giving in to the demands of an aggressor to keep the peace
pacifism
opposition to all war
Anschluss
a union of Austria and Germany; wanted by HItler in 1938
"phony war"
1939; French had troops on the Maginot Line ready for war; British troops went to wait too
Dunkirk
Britian saved their troops using boats from the shores of Dunkirk and Ostend despite German air attacks.
Winston Churchill
succeeder of Chamberlain, Churchill was one of the only voices against the Nazis; angered Hitler enough for him to start the London Blitz
Battle of Britian (The London Blitz)
Operation Sea Lion; began on August 12, 1940 when Germany bombed England's southern coast every day; after a month, Germany turned from military targets and on to the cities; they bombed London for 57 nights straight starting September 7
Operation Barbarossa
June 1941; Germany's conquest of Russia that failed miserably at the battles of Stalingrad and Leningrad
Lend-Lease Act
early 1941 by FDR; allowed him to sell or lend war materials to "any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States."
Pearl Harbor
December 7 1941; General Tojo (Japan) attacked Hawaiian port Pearl Harbor
blitzkrieg
lightning war
radar
device used to detect the flight of airplanes
sonar
device used to detect the path of submarines
Holocaust
the mass slaughtering of Jews, Slavs, gypsies, and the mentally ill in Nazi Germany becasue they were "inferior" to everyone else
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
created by Japan; said that they wanted to help Asians escape western colonial rule; really, they wanted to have a Japanese empire in Asia
Battle of el Alamein
British General Bernard Montgomery stopped Rommel's advance; turned on Desert Fox and drove Axis forces back across Libya into Tunisia
Battle of Stalingrad
one of the costliest of the war; Hitler wanted to capture Stalin's capital city; Germans surrounded the city, then the Russians surrounded them; winter came and soldiers fought for houses; Germans finally surrendered in early 1943 after two year struggle; battle cost Germans 300,000 in killed, wounded, or captured soldiers
D-Day
US soldiers invade Normandy, France on June 6, 1944; France and Paris eventually freed in about a month
genocide
the destruction of an entire race by killing them
collaborator
person who cooperates with an enemy
reparations
payment for war damges or damages caused by imprisonment
Battle of the Coral Sea
Pacific battle where the Japanese started to lose the battles of the Pacific; the US warships and airplanes severly damaged two Japanese fleets during May and June 1942; greatly weaked Japanese navel power and stopped their advance
Battle of the Bulge
Hitler's last success; Allies went into Belgium in December 1944 and Germany launched counterattack; lasted more than a month; both side took huge losses; Germany unable to break through
V-E Day
May 8 1945; the war in Europe ended officially a day after Germany surrendered
Harry Truman
after FDR; realized atomic bomb was terrible new force for destruction but decided to sue it against Japan; issued a warning for Japan with other Allies at Potsdam, Germany; told Japan to surrender or face "utter and complete destruction"
island hopping
method used by Allies to recapture some Japanese held islands in the Pacific while bypassing others; captured islands served as stepping stones to the next one
kamikaze
pilots who undertook suicide missions
The first atomic bomb
dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945; called Little Boy, it was a uranium bomb; killed 70,000 and injured 70,000; Paul Tibbits dropped it from the Enola Gay, a B29 plane
The second atomic bomb
Fat Man, dropped on August 9, 1945 at 11:02 AM on Nagasaki; it was supposed to be Kokrua but it was too overcast so they went to Nagasaki; it's plutonium; a B29 plane used again; 40,000 killed, 40,000 wounded