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62 Cards in this Set

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ecology
the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms
abiotic components
In biology, Abiotic components are nonliving chemical and physical factors in the environment. Often, these are described as light, temperature, water, atmospheric gases, wind as well as soil (edaphic) and physiographic (nature of land surface) factors.
biotic components
The Biotic enviroment involves all the living organisms that come regularly into contact with each other, how they interact and their mutual influences. An ecosystem consists basically of the following
ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment.
photic zone
the upper layer of a body of water delineated by the depth to which enough sunlight can penetrate to permit photosynthesis
aphotic zone
the vertical depth of water in the ocean unreachable by sunlight, just below the photic zone, and not supporting photosynthesis or autotrophic organisms
thermocline
a layer of water in an ocean or certain lakes, where the temperature gradient is greater than that of the warmer layer above and the colder layer below.
benthic zone
The benthic zone is the lowest level of a body of water, such as an ocean or a lake.
benthos
the biogeographic region that includes the bottom of a lake, sea, or ocean, and the littoral and supralittoral zones of the shore.
detritus
rock in small particles or other material worn or broken away from a mass, as by the action of water or glacial ice
littoral zone
the region of the shore of a lake or sea or ocean
limnetic zone
The limnetic zone is the well-lit, open surface waters farther from shore in a lake. It is between the littoral zone but before the profundal zone
profundal zone
The profundal zone is a deep zone of a body of water, such as an ocean or a lake, located below the range of effective light penetration. This is typically below the thermocline, the vertical zone in the water through which temperature drops rapidly.
oligotrophic
characterized by a low accumulation of dissolved nutrient salts, supporting but a sparse growth of algae and other organisms, and having a high oxygen content owing to the low organic content.
eutrophic
(of a lake) characterized by an abundant accumulation of nutrients that support a dense growth of algae and other organisms, the decay of which depletes the shallow waters of oxygen in summer.
intertidal zone
the area between the land and sea that is covered by water at high tide and uncovered at low tide.
neritic zone
the shallow waters of the ocean from the littoral zone to the edge of the continental shelf; also, the shallow waters of a lake that border the land
oceanic zone
Neritic zone spans from the low-tide line to the edge of the continental shelf in oceans. This region receives ample sunlight and extends to a depth of about 200 meters (656 feet), where the bottom is covered with seaweed.
pelagic zone
The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean that is not near the coast or sea floor.
benthic zone
The benthic zone is the lowest level of a body of water, such as an ocean or a lake.
abyssal zone
the deep sea (2000 meters or more) where there is no light
permafrost
in arctic or subarctic regions) perennially frozen subsoil
regulator
a person or thing that regulates
conformer
to be or become similar in form, nature, or character.
principle of allocation
suggests that natural selection results in each organism optimizing the partitioning of its resources to maximize fitness
acclimation
to accustom or become accustomed to a new climate or environment; adapt
ethology
the study of animal behavior with emphasis on the behavioral patterns that occur in natural environments.
foraging
to search about; seek; rummage; hunt
kin selection
a form of natural selection that favors altruistic behavior toward close relatives resulting in an increase in the altruistic individual's genetic contribution to the next generation.
imprinting
rapid learning that occurs during a brief receptive period, typically soon after birth or hatching, and establishes a long-lasting behavioral response to a specific individual or object, as attachment to parent, offspring, or site.
critical period
time of crisis; a turning point
associative learning
A type of learning principle based on the assumption that ideas and experiences reinforce one another and can be linked to enhance the learning process.
classical conditioning
Also called operant conditioning, instrumental conditioning. a process of changing behavior by rewarding or punishing a subject each time an action is performed until the subject associates the action with pleasure or distress.
cognition
the act or process of knowing; perception.
2. the product of such a process; something thus known, perceived, etc.
cognitive ethology
The fusion of cognitive science and classical ethology into cognitive ethology "emphasizes observing animals under more-or-less natural conditions, with the objective of understanding the evolution, adaptation (function), causation, and development of the species-specific behavioral repertoire" - (Tinbergen 1963).
habituation
reduction of psychological or behavioral response occurring when a specific stimulus occurs repeatedly.
kinesis
the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus, as light
monogamous
practicing or advocating monogamy.
2. of or pertaining to monogamy.
polygamous
of, pertaining to, characterized by, or practicing polygamy; polygamic.
pheromones
A chemical secreted by an animal, especially an insect, that influences the behavior or development of others of the same species, often functioning as an attractant of the opposite sex.
lek
a traditional place where males assemble during the mating season and engage in competitive displays that attract females.
promiscuous
characterized by or involving indiscriminate mingling or association, esp. having sexual relations with a number of partners on a casual basis.
fecundity
the quality of being fecund; capacity, esp. in female animals, of producing young in great numbers
iteroparity
Able to spawn more than one time, reproducing annually, or having more than one brood.
opportunistic
(of a disease or infection) caused by such an organism: Pneumocystis pneumonia is an opportunistic disease that often strikes victims of AIDS.
intraspecifc
existing or occurring within a species
cohort
an individual in a population of the same species
cryptic coloration
coloring that conceals or disguises an animal's shape
aposematic coloration
a bold, distinctive pattern of color characteristic of a poisonous or unpalatable organism, as the skunk or the monarch butterfly, that functions as a warning to and defense against predators.
mimicry
the close external resemblance of an organism, the mimic, to some different organism, the model, such that the mimic benefits from the mistaken identity, as seeming to be unpalatable or harmful.
Batesian mimicry
the protective resemblance in appearance of a palatable or harmless species, as the viceroy butterfly, to an unpalatable or dangerous species, as the monarch butterfly, that is usually avoided by predators.
Mullerian mimicry
the resemblance in appearance of two or more unpalatable species, which are avoided by predators to a greater degree than any one of the species would be otherwise.
stability
the state or quality of being stable.
disturbance
the act of disturbing.
2. the state of being disturbed.
3. an instance of this; commotion.
4. something that disturbs.
trophic level
any class of organisms that occupy the same position in a food chain, as primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers.
detritivores
An organism that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter, returning essential nutrients to the ecosystem. Detritivores include microorganisms such as bacteria and protists as well as larger organisms such as fungi, insects, worms, and isopod crustaceans. In a food chain, detritivores are primary consumers. Compare carnivore, herbivore.
ammonification
the act of impregnating with ammonia, as in the manufacture of fertilizer.
2. the state of being so impregnated.
3. the formation of ammonia or its compounds by decomposition of organic matter.
greenhouse effect
an atmospheric heating phenomenon, caused by short-wave solar radiation being readily transmitted inward through the earth's atmosphere but longer-wavelength heat radiation less readily transmitted outward, owing to its absorption by atmospheric carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and other gases; thus, the rising level of carbon dioxide is viewed with concern.
conservation biology
The branch of biology that deals with the effects of humans on the environment and with the conservation of biological diversity.
metapopulation
A metapopulation consists of a group of spatially separated populations of the same species which interact at some level.
Initiative
readiness and ability in initiating action; enterprise
bioremediation
The use of biological agents, such as bacteria or plants, to remove or neutralize contaminants, as in polluted soil or water.