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35 Cards in this Set

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allele
one of a number of different forms of the same gene for a specific trait
carrier
a girl who is heterozygous for a trait; she has the allele in her cells and can pass it on to her kids, but she doesn't display the trait herself
clone
large population of genetically identical cells derive from one original cell
dihybrid cross
a cross in which two pairs of traits are studied
diploid
description of a cell that contains a double set of chromosomes, one from each parent
dominant
form of a gene that is expressed even if present with a contrasting recessive allele
egg
female gamete
exon
expressed DNA
fertilization
The penetration of the egg by the sperm and fusion of genetic materials to result in the development of an embryo
fetus
unborn young of an animal during the later stages of development; in humans, the name given to embryos after eight weeks of development
gamete
specialized reproductive cell involved in sexual reproduction
genetics
branch of biology that studies heredity
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
haploid
containing a single set of chromosomes
heredity
passing of traits from parents to their young
heterozygous
organism that has two different alleles for the same trait; hybrid
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that occur in pairs; have a corresponding structure
homozygous
organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
Human Genome Project
An international research effort begun in the 1980s to map and sequence all the genes found in the human species
inbreeding
method of maintaining desirable characteristics by crossing individuals with similar characteristics who are often closely related
intron
junk DNA in between segments of expressed DNA (exons)
karyotype
A photomicrograph of an individual's chromosomes arranged in a standard format showing the number, size, and shape of each chromosome type
monohybrid cross
a cross in which one pair of traits is studied
monosomy
having a single copy of a chromosome, rather than the usual pair
nondisjunction
failure of homologous chromosomes to separate normally during meiosis
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
recessive
description of an allele that is only expressed in the homozygous state
recombinant DNA
DNA molecule that forms from the combination of portions of two different DNA molecules
selective breeding
method of improving a species by choosing only the most desirable (for a certain trait) organisms and having them produce offspring with the desirable traits
sexual reproduction
process in which two cells, normally from different individuals, unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
somatic cell
body cell (not sex cell)
sperm
male gamete
trait
characteristic that a living thing can pass on to its young
trisomy
having three copies of a chromosome instead of the usual two
zygote
fertilized egg cell