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60 Cards in this Set

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Class Conciousness
Conflicting classes existed, in part, because many individuals cam to believe they existed and developd an appropriate sense of class feeling
Coke
A form of coal that was unlimited in supply and therefore easier and better to use
Chartism
Agitation against poor laws
Working class discontent
People's Charter
Draft of Reform Bill which called for universal suffrage payment of members of Parliament and annual elections...six main points.
Combination Acts
Passed in 1799 adn 1800; these cats outlawed unions and strikes.
Economic Nationalism
The Idea that countries should protect and foster their own businesses by imposing high protective tariffs on imported goods as wall as eliminating tariffs within the country.
Factory Act of 1833
This act limited the factory workday for children between nine and thirteen to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen adn eighteen to twelve hours.
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Organized by Owen in 1834, this was one of the largest and most visionary early trade unions.
Industrial Revolution
A term used to describe the burst of major inventions and technical changes witnessed in certain industries.
Iron Law of Wages
Because of the pressure of population growth, wages would always sink to the subsistence level, meaning wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving.
Luddites
Handicraft workers who attacked whole factories in N. England in 1812 and after, smashing the new machines that they believed were putting them out of work.
Mines Act of 1842
This act prohibited underground work for all women as well as for boys under 10.
Protective Tariff
A gov't way of supporting adn aiding their own economy by laying high tarrifs on the cheaper imported goods of another country.
Antiseptic Principle
Developed by English Surgeon Joseph Lister, it was the idea that a chemical disinfectant applied to a wound would destroy aerial bacteria.
Benthamite
Follower of the radical philosopher Jeremy Bentham who taught that public problems should be dealt with on a rational scientific basis and according to the greatest good for the greatest number.
Defense Mechanisms
Frueds theory that much of human behavior is motivated by unconcious emotional needs whose nature and origins are kept from concious awareness by various mental devices.
Evolution
The idea, applied by thinkers in many fields, that stresses gradual change and continuous adjustment
Germ Theory
The theory, contrary to the miasmatic theory, that disease was SPREAD through filth, not caused by it.
Illegitimacy Explosion
Period between 1750 and 1850 marked by a high number fo illegitimate births.
By the 1840s, as many as one in three was an illegitimate child in many large cities.
Labor Aristocracy
Highly skilled workers who made up about 15% of the working classes at the turn of the 20th century.
Miasmatic Theory
The belief that people contrat disease when they breathe the bad odors of decay and purifying excrement
Organic CHemistry
The Study of the compounds of carbon
Pasteurization
Process developed by Louis Pasteur that supressed the activity of living organisms in a beverage by heating it.
Positivist Method
Auguste Compte's disciplineof sociology, which postulated that each branch of our knowledge passes through three different theoretical conditions:Theological, or fictitious, Metaphysical, or abstract, and Scientific, or positive
Realism
Literary movement which stressed that literature should depict life exactly as it was.
Seperate Spheres
A rigid gender division of labor with woman as homemaker and wife and man as husband and wage earner
Social Darwinists
Group of thinkers popular with the upper middle class who saw the human race as driven foreward to ever-greater specialization and progress by the unending economic struggle which would determine the survival of the fittest.
Thermodynamics
A branch of physics built on Newton's laws of mechanics that investigated the relationship between heat and mechanical energy.
Battle of Peterloo
A protest that took place at St. Peter's fields in Manchester that was broken up by an armed cavalry in reaction to the revision of the Corn Laws.
Carlsbad Decrees
Issued in 1819, these decrees required the 38 German member states to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers.
The Communist Manifesto
Pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels.
Basis of Socialism.
Congress of Vienna
A meeting of Prussia, Russia, Austria and Great Britain to fashion a peace settlement having defeated France.
Corn Laws
Laws revised in 1815 that prohibited importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose to improbable levels.
Doers
According to Count Henri de Saint-Simon:
The leading scientists, engineers and industrialists.
Would plan the economy and guide it foreward by undertaking public works projects and establishment investment banks.
Dual Revolution
A term that historian Eric Hobsbawn used for the economic and political changes that tended to fuse, reinforcing each other.
Great Famine
The result of four years of crop failure in Ireland, a country that was dependant on potatoes as a dietary staple.
Holy Alliance
An alliance formed by Austria, Russia, and Prussia in Sept. of 1815 that became a symbol of the repression of liberal and revolutionary movements all over Europe.
Laissez Faire
Economic Liberalism that believes in unrestricted free enterprise and no gov't interference in the economy.
Liberalism
The principle ideas of which are liberty and equality, demanded representative gov't and equality before the law as well as the basic individual freedoms.
Nationalism
The idea that each people had its own genius and its own cultural unity.
This cultural unity was self-evident, manifesting itself esp. in a common language, history, and territory.
Parasites
Henri de St-Simon's theory:
The court, the aristocracy, and lawyers and churchmen.
Key to progress was social organization which required parasites to give way to the doers.
Proletariat
modern working class
Romanticism
A movement that was revolting against classicism and the enlightenment, it was characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontneity in both art and personal life.
Socialism
A backlash against the emergence of individualism and the fragmentation of society.
It was a move towards cooperation and a sense of community.
The Key ideas were panning, greater economic equality, adn state regulation of property.
Sturm und Drang
German eraly romantics of the 1770s and 1780s who lived lives of tremendous emotional intensity-suicides, duels, madness, and strange illnesses were common.
Sir Richard Arkwright
Invented Water Frame
Benjamin Disraeli
British Conservative.
Extended vote to all middle class male workers, needed to broaden aristocratic voter base.
Fredrich Engels
CONDITION OF WORKING CLASS IN ENGLAND
Society's problems caused by cpitalism and competition. Colleague of Karl Marx.
Factory Act of 1833
Created Factory workday or children between 9 and 13 as 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9. Factory owners required to establish schools. Destroyed family unit.
Charles Fourier
French social theorist.
Criticized capitalism. Wanted Socialist utopia and the emancipation of women.
THEORY OF THE FOUR MOVEMENTS.
Karl Marx
German. Father of Socialism. Author of COMMUNIST MANIFESTO with Fredrich Engels.
Robert Owen
Scottish. Spoke out about hiring children. Created mills in New Harmony.
Henry Palmerston
Hawkish English Foreign Minister during revolutions of 1848.
Poor Law
1834.
Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers.
First Reform Bill
1832.
Modified the old political system by easing voter qualifications. Abolished some smaller boroughs.
Second Reform Bill
1867.
Conservatives and liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters.
Tory
Political party in Britain controlled by the aristocracy.
Utopeian Socialism
Ideal society based on socialist ideals. Louis Blanc and Chalres Fourier.
James Watt
Added a condenser to Newcomen's steam engine to make it more efficient. Led to steam becoming a viable source of power.
Whig
British Party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.