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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
thermoregulation
the regulation of body temperature.
pharynx
the tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles, that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus.
larynx
a muscular and cartilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in humans, in which the vocal cords are located.
trachea
the tube in humans and other air-breathing vertebrates extending from the larynx to the bronchi, serving as the principal passage for conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.
, bronchi
either of the two main branches of the trachea.
bronchioles
Any of the fine, thin-walled, tubular extensions of a bronchus.
alveoli
an air cell of the lungs, formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways.
diaphragm
the partition separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity in mammals.
hemoglobin
iron
bicarbonate
a salt of carbonic acid, containing the HCO3−1 group; an acid carbonate, as sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3.
hemolymph
a fluid in the body cavities and tissues of invertebrates, in arthropods functioning as blood and in some other invertebrates functioning as lymph.
atria
either of the two upper chambers on each side of the heart that receive blood from the veins and in turn force it into the ventricles.
ventricles
A small cavity or chamber within a body or organ, especially:
a. The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and contracts to force it into the aorta.
valves
A membranous structure in a hollow organ or passage, as in an artery or vein, that folds or closes to prevent the return flow of the body fluid passing through it.
pulmonary circuit
of or pertaining to the lungs
systemic
pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole
SA node
a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
AV node
atrioventricular node
systole
the normal rhythmical contraction of the heart, during which the blood in the chambers is forced onward
diastole
the normal rhythmical dilatation of the heart during which the chambers are filling with blood
RBC
red blood cell
WBC
white blood cell
platelets
A minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting
plasma
the liquid part of blood or lymph, as distinguished from the suspended elements.
ammonia
a colorless, pungent, suffocating, highly water-soluble, gaseous compound, NH3, usually produced by the direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen gases: used chiefly for refrigeration and in the manufacture of commercial chemicals and laboratory reagents.
urea
a compound, CO(NH2)2, occurring in urine and other body fluids as a product of protein metabolism.
uric acid
a white, crystalline, odorless, tasteless, very slightly water-soluble powder form of this compound, obtained chiefly from urine or bird excrement or synthesized, used chiefly in organic synthesis.
nephron function
the filtering and excretory unit of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and tubules.
glomerulus
a compact cluster of capillaries.
connecting duct
any tube, canal, pipe, or conduit by which a fluid, air, or other substance is conducted or conveyed.
ureter
a muscular duct or tube conveying the urine from a kidney to the bladder or cloaca.
bladder
a membranous sac or organ serving as a receptacle for a fluid or air
urethra
the membranous tube that extends from the urinary bladder to the exterior and that in the male conveys semen as well as urine.
filtration
liquid that has been passed through a filter.
secretion
the act or process of separating, elaborating, and releasing a substance that fulfills some function within the organism or undergoes excretion.
reabsorption
Also called reabsorption. the selective uptake into the bloodstream of substances previously filtered out of the blood.
osmoregulation
the process by which cells and simple organisms maintain fluid and electrolyte balance with their surroundings.
ADH
a peptide hormone, synthesized in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland, that stimulates capillary muscles and reduces the flow of urine and increases its concentration.
aldosterone
hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland, instrumental in the regulation of sodium and potassium reabsorption by the cells of the tubular portion of the kidney.
salivary amylase
an enzyme in the saliva that converts starch into dextrin and maltose.
epiglottis
a thin, valvelike, cartilaginous structure that covers the glottis during swallowing, preventing the entrance of food and drink into the larynx.
peristalsis
the progressive wave of contraction and relaxation of a tubular muscular system, esp. the alimentary canal, by which the contents are forced through the system.
gastric
pertaining to the stomach.
HCl
Pertaining to, or compounded of, chlorine and hydrogen gas; as, hydrochloric acid; chlorhydric.
pepsin
an enzyme, produced in the stomach, that in the presence of hydrochloric acid splits proteins into proteoses and peptones.
zymogen
any of various enzyme precursor molecules that may change into an enzyme as a result of catalytic change.
pepsinogen
crystals, occurring in the gastric glands, that during digestion are converted into pepsin.
disinfection
to cleanse (rooms, wounds, clothing, etc.) of infection; destroy disease germs in.
villi
one of the minute, wormlike processes on certain membranes, esp. on the mucous membrane of the small intestine, where they serve in absorbing nutriment.
duodenum
the first portion of the small intestine, from the stomach to the jejunum.
maltase
an enzyme that converts maltose into glucose and causes similar cleavage of many other glucosides.
lactase
an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing lactose into glucose and galactose.
phosphatases
Any of numerous enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters of phosphoric acid and are important in the absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides, and phospholipids and in the calcification of bone.
pancreas
a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes a digestive fluid into the intestine through one or more ducts and also secretes the hormone insulin.
trypsin
a proteolytic enzyme of the pancreatic juice, capable of converting proteins into peptone.
chymotrypsin
a proteolytic enzyme, found in pancreatic juice, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins into polypeptides and amino acids.
lipase
any of a class of enzymes that break down fats, produced by the liver, pancreas, and other digestive organs or by certain plants.
amylase
any of a widely distributed class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch, glycogen, and related polysaccharides to oligosaccharides, maltose, or glucose.
gall bladder
a pear-shaped, muscular sac attached to the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, in which bile is stored and concentrated.
bile
emulsify fats