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51 Cards in this Set

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Thermoregulation
the regulation of body temperature.
gill function: counter current exchange
is a mechanism used to transfer some property of a fluid from one flowing current of fluid to another across a semipermeable barrier between them
nose
the part of the face or facial region in humans and certain animals that contains the nostrils and the organs of smell and functions as the usual passageway for air in respiration: in humans it is a prominence in the center of the face formed of bone and cartilage, serving also to modify or modulate the voice
pharynx
the tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles, that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus
larynx
a muscular and cartilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in humans, in which the vocal cords are located.
trachea
the tube in humans and other air-breathing vertebrates extending from the larynx to the bronchi, serving as the principal passage for conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.
bronchi
either of the two main branches of the trachea.
bronchioles
Any of the fine, thin-walled, tubular extensions of a bronchus
alveoli
Any of the tiny air-filled sacs arranged in clusters in the lungs, in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
diaphragm
A muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities and functioning in respiration
Atria
either of the two upper chambers on each side of the heart that receive blood from the veins and in turn force it into the ventricles.
ventricles
A small cavity or chamber within a body or organ, especially:
a. The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and contracts to force it into the aorta.
valves
A membranous structure in a hollow organ or passage, as in an artery or vein, that folds or closes to prevent the return flow of the body fluid passing through it
Systole
the normal rhythmical contraction of the heart, during which the blood in the chambers is forced onward
diastole
the normal rhythmical dilatation of the heart during which the chambers are filling with blood
platelets
A minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting
plasma
the liquid part of blood or lymph, as distinguished from the suspended elements
ureter
a muscular duct or tube conveying the urine from a kidney to the bladder or cloaca
bladder
a membranous sac or organ serving as a receptacle for a fluid or air.
Filtration
the process whereby fluids pass through a filter or a filtering medium
secretion
the act or process of separating, elaborating, and releasing a substance that fulfills some function within the organism or undergoes excretion
Osmoregulation
the process by which cells and simple organisms maintain fluid and electrolyte balance with their surroundings.
antidiuretic hormone
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
aldosterone
a hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland, instrumental in the regulation of sodium and potassium reabsorption by the cells of the tubular portion of the kidney
Mouth
the opening through which an animal or human takes in food
salivary amylase
an enzyme in the saliva that converts starch into dextrin and maltose.
epiglottis
a thin, valvelike, cartilaginous structure that covers the glottis during swallowing, preventing the entrance of food and drink into the larynx.
peristalsis
The wavelike muscular contractions of the alimentary canal or other tubular structures by which contents are forced onward toward the opening.
stomach
saclike enlargement of the alimentary canal, as in humans and certain animals, forming an organ for storing, diluting, and digesting food
gastric juices
strongly acidic ( p H varying from 1 to 3), almost colorless liquid secreted by the glands in the lining of the stomach. Its essential constituents are the digestive enzymes pepsin and rennin (see rennet ), hydrochloric acid, and mucus. Pepsin converts proteins into simpler, more easily absorbed substances; it is aided in this by hydrochloric acid, which provides the acid environment in which pepsin is most effective.
small intestines
the narrow, longer part of the intestines, comprising the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, that serves to digest and absorb nutrients
large intestine
the broad, shorter part of the intestines, comprising the cecum, colon, and rectum, that absorbs water from and eliminates the residues of digestion
villi
one of the minute, wormlike processes on certain membranes, esp. on the mucous membrane of the small intestine, where they serve in absorbing nutriment
Duodenum
the first portion of the small intestine, from the stomach to the jejunum.
proteases
Enzymes that degrade protein molecules.
maltase
an enzyme that converts maltose into glucose and causes similar cleavage of many other glucosides.
lactase
an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing lactose into glucose and galactose
Pancreas
a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes a digestive fluid into the intestine through one or more ducts and also secretes the hormone insulin.
Zymogens
any of a group of proteins that are converted to active enzymes by partial breakdown, as by the action of an acid or other enzyme.
Liver
a large, reddish-brown, glandular organ located in the upper right side of the abdominal cavity, divided by fissures into five lobes and functioning in the secretion of bile and various metabolic processes.
Bile
a bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, that aids in absorption and digestion, esp. of fats.
peripheral nervous system
sensory & motor neurons
Somatic
pertaining to the body wall of an animal
autonomic
Occurring involuntarily; automatic
sympathetic
pertaining to that part of the autonomic nervous system consisting of nerves that arise from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, and functioning in opposition to the parasympathetic system, as in stimulating heartbeat, dilating the pupil of the eye, etc.
parasympathetic
calming/slowing down effect, tranquil functions
epinephrine
A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress, as from fear or injury. It initiates many bodily responses, including the stimulation of heart action and an increase in blood pressure, metabolic rate, and blood glucose concentration
Dopamine
A monoamine neurotransmitter formed in the brain by the decarboxylation of dopa and essential to the normal functioning of the central nervous system. A reduction in its concentration within the brain is associated with Parkinson's disease.
serotonin
An organic compound, C10H12N2O, formed from tryptophan and found in animal and human tissue, especially the brain, blood serum, and gastric mucous membranes, and active as a neurotransmitter and in vasoconstriction, stimulation of the smooth muscles, and regulation of cyclic body processes.
Sarcomere
any of the segments of myofibril in striated muscle fibers.
sarcoplasm
the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber