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118 Cards in this Set

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Open circulatory system
Open circulatory systems (evolved in crustaceans, insects, mollusks and other invertebrates) pump blood into a hemocoel with the blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells. Blood is pumped by a heart into the body cavities, where tissues are surrounded by the blood.
a fluid in the body cavities and tissues of invertebrates, in arthropods functioning as blood and in some other invertebrates functioning as lymph.
any of various cavities, recesses, or passages, as a hollow in a bone, or a reservoir or channel for venous blood.
either of the two upper chambers on each side of the heart that receive blood from the veins and in turn force it into the ventricles
The Systemic Circuits
In the systemic circuit, blood leaves the heart through the aorta, goes to all the organs of the body through the systemic arteries, and then returns to the heart through the systemic veins
The Pulmonary Circuits
It is also responsible for pumping blood to the lungs, where the blood gives up carbon dioxide and takes on oxygen. The heart is able to pump blood to both regions efficiently because there are really two separate circulatory circuits with the heart as the common link.
of or pertaining to the atria and ventricles of the heart.
shaped like a half-moon; crescent.
of or pertaining to the heart: cardiac disease.
2. of or pertaining to the esophageal portion of the stomach.
the normal rhythmical contraction of the heart, during which the blood in the chambers is forced onward.
a blue, copper-containing respiratory pigment in the plasma of many invertebrates
the normal rhythmical dilatation of the heart during which the chambers are filling with blood.
Relating to the venous sinus and the right atrium of the heart.
a type of epithelium composed of a single layer of smooth, thin cells that lines the heart, blood vessels, lymphatics, and serous cavities.
red blood cell
one of the cells of the blood, which in mammals are enucleate disks concave on both sides, contain hemoglobin, and carry oxygen to the cells and tissues and carbon dioxide back to the respiratory organs. Also called erythrocyte, red cell, red blood corpuscle.
the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells that gives them their red color and serves to convey oxygen to the tissues: occurs in reduced form (deoxyhemoglobin) in venous blood and in combination with oxygen (oxyhemoglobin) in arterial blood.
white blood cell
any of various nearly colorless cells of the immune system that circulate mainly in the blood and lymph and participate in reactions to invading microorganisms or foreign particles, comprising the B cells, T cells, macrophages, monocytes, and granulocytes.

Also called leukocyte, white blood corpuscle, white corpuscle, white cell.
a hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the bone marrow, synthesized in response to low levels of oxygen in the tissues.
a globulin occurring in blood and yielding fibrin in blood coagulation.
the insoluble protein end product of blood coagulation, formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the presence of calcium ions.
a fibrinous clot that forms in and obstructs a blood vessel, or that forms in one of the chambers of the heart
hemoglobin of muscle, weighing less and carrying more oxygen and less carbon monoxide than blood hemoglobin.
pertaining to or connected with the trachea or tracheae.
2. Botany. of the nature of or composed of tracheae or vessels.
an enzyme that is destructive of bacteria and functions as an antiseptic, found in tears, leukocytes, mucus, egg albumin, and certain plants.
A type of white blood cell found in vertebrate blood, containing cytoplasmic granules that are easily stained by eosin or other acid dyes.
a histidine-derived amine compound that is released mainly by damaged mast cells in allergic reactions, causing dilation and permeability of blood vessels and lowering blood pressure.
A cell, especially a white blood cell, having granules that stain readily with basic dyes.
mast cells
A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing and defense against pathogens
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Any of various cytokines produced in acute and chronic inflammation that mobilize and activate white blood cells.
A substance that produces fever
any of various proteins, produced by virus-infected cells, that inhibit reproduction of the invading virus and induce resistance to further infection.
B lymphocytes (B cells)
B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response that is governed by T cells.
T lymphocytes (T cells)
T cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and NK cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface that is called the T cell receptor (TCR).
effector cells
Effector cells are a type of lymphocyte that are actively engaged in secreting antibodies.
clonal selection
The clonal selection theory has become a widely accepted model for how the immune system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens invading the body.
plasma cells
Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies.
Class I MHC
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large genomic region or gene family found in most vertebrates. It is the most gene-dense region of the mammalian genome and plays an important role in the immune system, autoimmunity, and reproductive success.
Class II MHC
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large genomic region or gene family found in most vertebrates. It is the most gene-dense region of the mammalian genome and plays an important role in the immune system, autoimmunity, and reproductive success.
cytotoxic T cells (TC )
are derived from a lymphocyte stem cell matured in the thymus. The main role of the cytotoxic T cell, as the name suggests, is to kill other cells.
target cell
any cell that has a specific receptor for an antigen or antibody or hormone or drug, or is the focus of contact by a virus or phagocyte or nerve fiber etc.
a protein produced by killer cells of the immune system that causes disintegration of targeted cells by forming pores in their membranes.
tumor antigen
Any of several antigens present in tumors induced by certain types of adenoviruses and papovaviruses or in cells transformed in vitro by those viruses. Also called neoantigen, T antigen.
Also called antigenic determinant, epitope. Immunology. any site on an antigen molecule at which an antibody can bind, the chemical structure of the site determining the specific combining antibody.
Any of a group of large glycoproteins that are secreted by plasma cells and that function as antibodies in the immune response by binding with specific antigens. There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM.
to increase the susceptibility of (bacteria) to ingestion by phagocytes
the clumping of bacteria, red blood cells, or other cells, due to the introduction of an antibody.
anaphylactic shock
a severe and sometimes fatal allergic reaction to a foreign substance, esp. a protein, as serum or bee venom, to which an individual has become sensitized, often involving rapid swelling, acute respiratory distress, and collapse of circulation.
the regulation of body temperature.
the process by which cells and simple organisms maintain fluid and electrolyte balance with their surroundings.
the substance excreted, as urine or sweat, or certain plant products
dilatation of the blood vessels, as by the action of a nerve.
constriction of the blood vessels, as by the action of a nerve
the production of heat, esp. in an animal body by physiological processes
The physiological adaptation of an animal or plant to changes in climate or environment, such as light, temperature, or altitude
dormancy, as of a hibernating animal
A state of dormancy or torpor during the summer
The osmotic concentration of a solution expressed as osmoles of solute per liter of solution.
(of an aquatic organism) unable to withstand wide variation in salinity of the surrounding water.
renal artery
an artery originating from the abdominal aorta and supplying the kidneys and adrenal glands and ureters
renal cortex
the cortex of the kidney containing the glomeruli and the convoluted tubules
Also called Malpighian tuft. a tuft of convoluted capillaries in the nephron of a kidney, functioning to remove certain substances from the blood before it flows into the convoluted tubule.
An epithelial cell of the renal glomerulus, attached to the outer surface of the glomerular capillary basement membrane by cytoplasmic foot processes.
a hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland, instrumental in the regulation of sodium and potassium reabsorption by the cells of the tubular portion of the kidney
endocrine system
the system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity
A steroid hormone produced by insects and crustaceans that promotes growth and controls molting.
pineal gland
a small, cone-shaped endocrine organ in the posterior forebrain, secreting melatonin and involved in biorhythms and gonadal development.
a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in inverse proportion to the amount of light received by the retina, important in the regulation of biorhythms: in amphibians, it causes a lightening of the skin
development of an egg without fertilization.
the condition of being a hermaphrodite.
A chemical secreted by an animal, especially an insect, that influences the behavior or development of others of the same species, often functioning as an attractant of the opposite sex.
An organ in animals that produces gametes, especially a testis or ovary.
vas deferens
the duct that transports the sperm from the epididymis to the penis.
bulbourethral glands
A bulbourethral gland (or Cowper's gland) is one of two small exocrine glands present in the reproductive system of human males. They are homologous to Bartholin's glands in females
A crypt or minute cul-de-sac or lacuna, such as the depression in the skin from which the hair emerges.
An ovarian follicle.
corpus luteum
a ductless gland developed within the ovary by the reorganization of a Graafian follicle following ovulation.
a fold of mucous membrane partly closing the external orifice of the vagina in a virgin
any of various cavities or hollows regarded as forming an approach or entrance to another cavity or space, as that of the internal ear.
sexual intercourse, esp. between a man and a woman
(formerly) the theory that the individual, with all its parts, preexists in the germ cell and grows from microscopic to normal proportions during embryogenesis
the theory that an embryo develops from the successive differentiation of an originally undifferentiated structure (opposed to preformation).
b. the approximately stepwise process by which genetic information, as modified by environmental influences, is translated into the substance and behavior of an organism.
acrosomal reaction
the acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the spermatozoon's head. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus.
the part of the contents of the egg of an animal that enters directly into the formation of the embryo, together with any material that nourishes the embryo during its formation.
the early developmental stage of an animal, following the morula stage and consisting of a single, spherical layer of cells enclosing a hollow, central cavity
any process, as invagination, by which a blastula or other form of embryo is converted into a gastrula.
the primitive enteron or digestive cavity of a gastrula.
the innermost of the embryonic or fetal membranes of reptiles, birds, and mammals; the sac in which the embryo is suspended
A group of functionally related glycoproteins responsible for the calcium-dependent cell-to-cell adhesion mechanism. They are divided into subclasses e-, p-, and n-cadherins, which are distinct in immunological specificity and tissue distribution. They promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These compounds play a role in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A branched protoplasmic extension of a nerve cell that conducts impulses from adjacent cells inward toward the cell body. A single nerve may possess many dendrites. Also called dendron.
The usually long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane of an axon, dendrite, or muscle or gland cell with the appropriate receptor molecules for picking up the neurotransmitters.
A nerve cell found entirely within the central nervous system that acts as a link between sensory neurons and motor neurons.
the posterior section of the hindbrain comprising the medulla oblongata
medulla oblongata
the lowest or hindmost part of the brain, continuous with the spinal cord
Any of a group of peptide hormones that bind to opiate receptors and are found mainly in the brain. Endorphins reduce the sensation of pain and affect emotions.
inferior colliculi
The inferior colliculi (Latin, lower hill) together with the superior colliculi form the eminences of the corpora quadrigemina, and also part of the tectal region of the midbrain. The inferior colliculus lies caudal to its counterpart - the superior colliculus - above the trochlear nerve, and at the base of the projection of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN).
saltatory conduction
A form of nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from one Ranvier's node to the next, rather than traveling the entire length of the nerve fiber.
a large portion of the brain, serving to coordinate voluntary movements, posture, and balance in humans, being in back of and below the cerebrum and consisting of two lateral lobes and a central lobe.
the dorsal area of the diencephalon containing a habenula and the pineal gland
A small cavity or chamber within a body or organ, especially:
a. The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and contracts to force it into the aorta.
cerebral cortex
the furrowed outer layer of gray matter in the cerebrum of the brain, associated with the higher brain functions, as voluntary movement, coordination of sensory information, learning and memory, and the expression of individuality.
Also called prosencephalon. the anterior of the three primary divisions of the brain in the embryo of a vertebrate, or the part of the adult brain derived from this tissue including the diencephalon and telencephalon.
the midbrain.
a dense, white, fibrous membrane that, with the cornea, forms the external covering of the eyeball
the mucous membrane that lines the exposed portion of the eyeball and inner surface of the eyelids.
Any of the threadlike fibrils that make up the contractile part of a striated muscle fiber. Also called sarcostyle.
the contractile, circular diaphragm forming the colored portion of the eye and containing a circular opening, the pupil, in its center.
the middle one of a chain of three small bones in the middle ear of humans and other mammals.
the innermost coat of the posterior part of the eyeball that receives the image produced by the lens, is continuous with the optic nerve, and consists of several layers, one of which contains the rods and cones that are sensitive to light.
any of the segments of myofibril in striated muscle fibers
the act or process of transmitting.
2. the fact of being transmitted.
3. something that is transmitted.
the larger of two sacs in the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear. Compare
a bright-red photosensitive pigment found in the rod-shaped cells of the retina of certain fishes and most higher vertebrates: it is broken down by the action of dim light into retinal and opsin.
calcareous concretion in the internal ear of vertebrates
one of the radial elements composing a compound eye
amacrine cells
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina which deliver 70% of the ganglion cells input, and also regulates the output of the cone bipolar cells which deliver the other 30%.
the progressive wave of contraction and relaxation of a tubular muscular system, esp. the alimentary canal, by which the contents are forced through the system.
a group of innervated sensory cells occurring along the lateral line of fishes and aquatic amphibians