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16 Cards in this Set

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Loss of smell is a first sign of what kinds of disease
Among the more important developments in neurology has been the discovery that decreased smell function is perhaps the first sign of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), signifying their "presymptomatic" phase.
What tastes use GPCR
T1R1, T1R2: Sweet and umami; umami = flavors of meat, cheese an dbroth due to glutamate and related compounds

T2R: Bitter
What tastes use transient receptor potential proteins (TRP?)
PKD2L1: Sour
What tastes use sodium channels?
Salty
VII
anterior tongue
IX
posterior tongue
X
epiglottis larynx proximal esophagus sensation
V
somatosensory from tongue (spicy, temp)
presbyosmia
age associated loss of smell
physiologic basis for head trauma related olfactory loss
The physiologic basis for most head trauma–related losses is the shearing and subsequent scarring of the olfactory fila as they pass from the nasal cavity into the brain cavity
some physiologic disorders that can affect taste
(1) the release of foul-tasting materials from the oral cavity from oral medical conditions and appliances (e.g. gingivitis, purulent sialadenitis), (2) transport problems of tastants to the taste buds (e.g., drying of the orolingual mucosa, infections, inflammatory conditions), (3) damage to the taste buds themselves (e.g., local trauma, invasive carcinomas), (4) damage to the neural pathways innervating the taste buds (e.g., middle ear infections), (5) damage to central structures (e.g., multiple sclerosis, tumor, epilepsy, stroke), and(6) systemic disturbances of metabolism (e.g., diabetes, thyroid disease, medications).
bells palsy
affects VII which affects somatosensation from the tongue
most likely mechanism of isolated CN IX damage
tonsillectomy, bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, and radiation therapy can result in selective injury
sudden chemosensory loss
head trauma, ischemia, infectoin or psychiatric condition
gradual chemosensory loss
progressive obstructive lesion
intermittent chemosensory loss
inflammatory process