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25 Cards in this Set

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List three of Horney's criticisms of Freudian theory.
(1) its rigidity toward new ideas, (2) its skewed view of feminine psychology, and (3) its overemphasis on biology and the pleasure principle.

1. Horney thought utilizing traditional psychoanalysis theory was restricting and limited one’s ability to discover new innovative ideas.

2. Discarded Freud’s view on feminine psychology as Honey was of the mind that it was not biological differences that set genders apart but cultural and social norms.

3. Horney found that personality was influenced by not just biological instincts but also cultural influences. Specifically people are driven by safety and satisfaction principles.
Name four protective mechanisms that people use to defend themselves against basic hostility and basic anxiety.

1. Affection

2. Withdrawal

3. Power

4. Submission
1. Toward people. Seek to buy love. Material goods - sexual favors.

2. Emotional detach.

3. Dominant people. Possession: Protection over poverty ... deprive others Prestige: Humiliate them.

4. Submit themselves to an institution or person. Ex. religion.
List Horney's 10 neurotic needs.
1. Affection & approval

2. Powerful partner

3. Narrow limits

4. Power

5. Exploitation

6. Recognition and unassailability

7. Personal admiration

8. Personal achievement

9. Self-sufficiency and independence

10. Perfection and prestige
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

1. Affection & approval
Try to be liked, please others and attempt live up to other people’s expectations. People with this type of need are extremely sensitive to rejection and criticism and fear the anger or hostility of others.
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

2. Powerful partner
The person lacks self confidence and places an exaggerated importance on being loved ear of being abandoned by their partner is a characteristic. The person suffers extreme fear of being abandoned by their partner.
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

3. Narrow limits
The person attempts to keep a low profile with no attention directed toward them. They also downgrade their abilities and put their own needs secondary.
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

4. Power
Individual seeks power as a means to control the situation. The individual will attempt to exploit or dominate other people to gain this control.
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

5. Exploitation
The person will manipulate others to gain their desired objective. And see their relationships in terms of what can be gained through association with them.
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

6. Recognition and unassailability
The person evaluates their self worth in terms of public recognition and acclaim. Strive to be in the limelight and they put value in being at the top of the class.
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

7. Personal admiration
Individual has an exaggerated self-perception and desire to be admired by this imagined self-view. They desire for people to look up to them because of who they are or what material possessions they have.
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

8. Personal achievement
This type of person fears failure and drives to constantly defeat other people’s achievements and aim to be be on top. They also aspire to reach targets above their own earlier successes.
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

9. Self-sufficiency and independence
The person works to distance themselves from others and has a “loner” mentality. They also avoid becoming dependent on other people.
Describe the following neurotic need: (1 of 10)

10. Perfection and prestige
The individual hates to make mistake. The person aims for absolute infallibility.
List Horney's three neurotic trends.
a. Moving Toward people

b. Moving Against people

c. Moving Away from people
discuss the following neurotic trend:

a. Moving Toward people
a. Source of the neurotic trend is feelings of helplessness. Complaint personality is characteristic of this kind of neurotic trend. The person aims to exhibit a need for affection and approval on the part of their peers. They attempt to protect themselves from these feelings by utilizing one of the following neurotic needs.

Affection & approval - People pleasure and desire to be liked.
Powerful partner - Desire to have someone to love them and solve their problems.
Narrow limits to live as inconspicuous a life as possible .appear to lack ambition. Life is experienced in "safe"
discuss the following neurotic trend:

b. Moving Against people
b.The aggressive personality is reflected in this neurotic trend. The source of the neurotic trend is protection against hostility of others. Neurotic person will exhibit basic hostility to those around them.

Power - achieve control over others.
Exploitation - attempt to manipulate and use people for their own purpose.
Recognition and unassailability - desire to be in the limelight and recognized by their peers.
Personal admiration - desire for people to look up to them because of who they are or what material possessions they have.
Personal achievement - competitive nature showcases a fear of failure and desire to be on top.
discuss the following neurotic trend:

c. Moving Away from people
c. Detachment personality is characteristic of this neurotic trend and the source is feelings of isolation. Build a world of their own. Refuse to allow anyone to get close to them. Value freedom and self-sufficiency. Characteristics include being aloof and unapproachable.

Self-sufficiency and independence - has a “loner” mentality and avoid being dependent on others.
Perfection and prestige - Aim for complete infallibility and display a fear of any sign of flaws.
List six major ways in which self-hatred is expressed.

1. Self-torment
2. Self-frustration
3. Self-destruction
4. Self-contempt
5. merciless self-accusation
6. relentless demands on self
Neurotic individuals dislike themselves because reality always falls short of their idealized view of self.
1. Inflict self-harm cutting self, start fight they know they will lose.
2. Shackled by taboos of enjoyment. Don’t deserve new car, can’t wear fancy clothes because people around me are unable to afford them.
3. physical or psychological. conscious or unconscious. Carry out action in reality or imagination. ex. overeating, reckless driving.
4. Belittling, self-doubt. Discrediting. Ex. Never get a date with hottest girl in town.
5. people can engage in damning self talk, always interpreting negative events as their fault. Berate themselves. Ex. Take responsibility for natural disasters.
6. "You SHOULD be .... " also called "the tyranny of the shoulds." When the idealized self's inner dictates are not fulfilled, the person feels like a failure.
Discuss Horney's concept of feminine psychology, including her view of the Oedipus complex.
Horney rejected a # of Freud’s thoughts on feminine psyc. She didn't think anatomy was the reason that there are psychic differences between male and female. Thought it was cultural and social explanations. Horney stated basic anxiety in humans leads men to subjugate females, & is the cause of women’s desire to humiliate men. Horney thought root cause of Oedipus Complex was environmental not biological. Saw no evidence that Oedipus Complex was universal. Her findings demonstrated only occurs in some people, as expression of the neurotic need for love. Horney stated anxiety is the underlying cause for why a child will cling to one parent and express jealousy toward the other. The main aim for this kind of behaviour is security not sex. Penis envy is another topic she disagreed with Freud’s universal anatomy notion. if females were envious of penis = same for males (wish to have a breast or womb). agreed w. Adler: masculine protest & desire to be a man. But not physical-only status
Compare and contrast the theories of Horney and Freud
1. Utilizing traditional psychoanalysis theory was restricting and limited one’s ability to discover new innovative ideas.

2. Discarded Freud’s view on feminine psychology as Horney thought
- Freud’s concept of penis envy was criticized in his own time, most notably by psychoanalyst Karen Horney. She suggested that it is men who are adversely affected by their inability to bear children, which she referred to as "womb envy."

3. Horney agreed with Freud that childhood experiences are important in modeling one’s personality. However Horney did not think the personality was influenced by the biological instinct sex. Instead she thought it was shaped by cultural influences. Specifically people are driven by safety and satisfaction principles.
Discuss Horney's concepts of:

A) basic hostility

B) basic anxiety
A)
feeling of anger by the young child toward the parents, which must be repressed

_____ caused by rejection or neglect from parents. Defence against basic anxiety.

B)
feeling of isolation and helplessness resulting from inadequate parenting in infancy

___ caused paternal threats. Defence against basic hostility.
Reciprocal relationship.
Explain Horney's concept of intrapsychic conflicts

A) Idealized Self-Image

B) Self Hatred
People also experience _____ or become part of their belief systems & take on lives of their own, separate from the ____ that created them.
A) People who do not receive love and affection during childhood are blocked in heir attempt to acquire a stable sense of identity. Feeling alienated from self, they create an idealized self-image, or an extravagantly positive picture of themselves. 3 aspects: 1) the neurotic search for glory, or a comprehensive drive toward actualizing the ideal self; (2)neurotic claims, or a belief that they are entitled to special privileges; and (3) neurotic pride, or a false pride based not on reality but on a distorted and idealized view of self.
B) Neurotic ppl dislike themselves cuz reality falls short of their idealized view of self. Self-hatred expressed as: : : : (1) relentless demands on self, (2) merciless self-accusation, (3) self-contempt, (4) self-frustration, (5) self-torment or self-torture, and (6) self-destructive actions and impulses.
Discuss Horney's approach to feminine psychology
Horney proved that culture and society encouraged women to be dependent on men for love, prestige, wealth, care, and protection. She pointed out the overemphasis on pleasing men and the overvaluation of men and love. Women, she found, were to be beautiful and charming, according to society. Also, women gained value only through their husbands children, and family. Her "The Distrust Between the Sexes" compared the husband-wife relationship to a parent-child relationship. In "The Problem of the Monogamous Ideal", Karen focused on marriage, and six of her other papers were based on marriage problems. Finally, her "Maternal Conflicts", shed new light on the problems associated with raising adolescents.
Describe recent research on psychoanalytic social theory.
Research has emphasizes the negative aspects of neuroticism. There is correlation between someone rated high in neuroticism and negative emotions that can lead to generalized anxiety disorders. It has also been found that there is connection with setting avoidance goals as the person attempts to limit their anxiety and avoid negative outcomes.

Michael Robinson and colleagues asked “ How could one be a successful neurotic? They set out to investigate the relationship between neuroticism. recognition of threats and mood. Hypothesis: If people high in neuroticism are able to foresee future problems they would be able to avoid them. In turn = positive effect on their mood. Method: Participants complete computer tasks: measured ability to gauge potential threats & how they handled the situation when errors occur. After participants documented mood 4 next 7 d. Findings: people are capable of being a successful neurotic. NP can create strategies to avoid negative outcomes, & more +.
Evaluate psychoanalytic social theory against the criteria of a useful theory.
Although Horney painted a vivid portrait of the neurotic personality, her theory rates very low in generating research, low on its ability to be falsified, to organize data, and to serve as a useful guide to action. Her theory is rated about average on internal consistency and parsimony.