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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ground tissues in plants
parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
dermal tissues in plants
epidermis, cuticle
vascular tissue
The conducting tissues, both xylem and phloem, which transport water, minerals, and sap through a plant, and help provide internal support
A tissue composed of several types of conducting cells and supporting fibres which transports water and minerals up from the roots to all other parts of a plant. Located in the vascular bundles, the cells die when mature. They form the ‘wood’ of woody plants
elongated cells in the xylem of vascular plants, serving in the transport of water. The build of tracheids will vary according to where they occur.
transpirational pull
the main phenomenon driving the flow of water in the xylem tissues of large plants.
Tissue, composed of conducting cells and often supporting fibres, which transports sap from the leaves to other parts of a plant. It is either located in the vascular bundles or forms the inner bark of woody plants. It is complementary to xylem, but composed of living cells.
sieve tubes
a certain type of elongated parenchyma cells in phloem tissue. At the ends those cells are connected with other sieve elements, and together they constitute the sieve tube. The main function of the sieve tube is transport of carbohydrates in the plant
living at functional maturity
loss of nuclei, ribosomes & central vacuole
primary growth
vertical growth
apical root
root cap, zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of maturation/differentiation
secondary growth
increase in girth
lateral meristems
vascular cambium (2° xylem & 2° phloem), cork cambium (periderm & bark)
a part of the body of a plant that develops, typically, from the radicle and grows downward into the soil, anchoring the plant and absorbing nutriment and moisture
a thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns
root hairs
Tiny, hair-like outgrowth of some surface cells of plant roots that greatly increases the area available for the absorption of water and other materials such as minerals. It is a delicate structure, which survives for a few days only and does not develop into a root
the portion of a stem between the epidermis and the vascular tissue; bark
a specialized tissue in the roots and stems of vascular plants, composed of a single layer of modified parenchyma cells forming the inner boundary of the cortex.
Casparian strip
The casparian strip is a coating that prevents water from seeping between the cells and thus forces water to enter the endodermal cells before passing through to the vascular cylinder.
stele (vascular cylinder)
The vascular cylinder consists of vascular tissues (xylem and phloem), procambium, and one or more layers of cells which comprise the pericycle
one of the expanded, usually green organs borne by the stem of a plant
a very thin hyaline film covering the surface of plants, derived from the outer surfaces of the epidermal cells.
upper palisade mesophyll
lower spongy mesophyll
gas exchange
vascular bundle
transport tissues are grouped together to form what are known as the vascular bundles
promotes plant growth, cell elongation; apical dominance
cell growth, fruit development; bigger grapes
promote cell growth (cytokinesis); apical dominance
promote fruit ripening
abscisic acid (ABA)
maintains seed & bud dormancy
Alternation of Generation
multicellular sporophyte(2n)->meiosis=spores(1n)->mitosis=multicellular gametophyte(1n)->mitosis=gametes(1n)->fertilization=multicellular sporophyte(2n)
One of the separate, usually green parts forming the calyx of a flower.
One of the often brightly colored parts of a flower immediately surrounding the reproductive organs; a division of the corolla.
anthers (pollen)
The pollen-bearing part of the stamen.
pistil/carpel (egg)
the ovule-bearing or seed-bearing female organ of a flower, consisting when complete of ovary, style, and stigma.
double fertilization
the fertilization process characteristic of flowering plants, in which one sperm cell of a pollen grain fertilizes an egg cell while a second fuses with two polar nuclei to produce a triploid body that gives rise to the endosperm.
zygote (2n):
new plant
endosperm (3n):
nutrition for new plant
the fertilized, matured ovule of a flowering plant, containing an embryo or rudimentary plant.
seed coat
the outer integument of a seed.
cotyledons (seed leaves),
A leaf of the embryo of a seed plant, which upon germination either remains in the seed or emerges, enlarges, and becomes green
hypocotyl (embryonic stem),
a part of a germinating seedling of a seed plant
radicle (embryonic root)
the lower part of the axis of an embryo; the primary root.
Growth or movement of a sessile organism toward or away from a source of light
response to gravity
response to touch
response to relative length of daylight & darkness, circadian rhythm
Pr + red light . Pfr
Pfr + far-red light . Pr