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45 Cards in this Set

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Sepals
One of the usually separate, green parts that surround and protect the flower bud and extend from the base of a flower after it has opened. Sepals tend to occur in the same number as the petals and to be centered over the petal divisions. In some species sepals are colored like petals, and they can even be indistinguishable from petals, as in the lilies (in what are called tepals). In some groups, such as the poppies, the sepals fall off after the flower bud opens.
petals
One of the often brightly colored parts of a flower surrounding the reproductive organs. Petals are attached to the receptacle underneath the carpels and stamens and may be separate or joined at their bases. As a group, the petals are called the corolla.
anthers
The pollen-bearing part at the upper end of the stamen of a flower. Most anthers occur at the tip of a slender, stemlike filament and have two lobes. Each lobe contains two pollen sacs. When pollen matures in the pollen sacs, the lobes of the anthers burst open in the process known as dehiscence to release the pollen
Double fertilization
The process in which the two sperm nuclei of a pollen grain unite with nuclei of the embryo sac of an angiosperm plant. One sperm nucleus unites with the egg to form the diploid zygote, from which the embryo develops. The other sperm unites with the two nuclei located in a single cell at the center of the embryo sac. Together these nuclei form the triploid nucleus of the cell from which the endosperm develops. Double fertilization in this form is unique to the angiosperms.
Zygote
The cell formed by the union of the nuclei of two reproductive cells (gametes), especially a fertilized egg cell.
Endosperm
The tissue that surrounds and provides nourishment to the embryo in the seeds of many angiosperms. The cells of the endosperm arise from a process similar to that of fertilization. The pollen of angiosperms contains two sperm, one of which fertilizes the egg cell in the female gametophyte. The second unites with two other nuclei in the female gametophyte, producing cells that are triploid (having three sets of chromosomes) and that develop into the endosperm. In some species of angiosperms, the endosperm is absorbed by the embryo before germination, while in others it is consumed during germination. Embyros that lack an endosperm (such as peas and beans) have absorbed most of their food storage tissues before becoming dormant and develop large, fleshy cotyledons
hypocotyls
The part of a plant embryo or seedling that lies between the radicle and the cotyledons. Upon germination, the hypocotyl pushes the cotyledons above the ground to develop. It eventually becomes part of the plant stem. Most seed-bearing plants have hypocotyls, but the grasses have different, specialized structures.
Auxin
Any of various hormones or similar substances that promote and regulate the growth and development of plants. Auxins are produced in the meristem of shoot tips and move down the plant, causing various effects. Auxins cause the cells below the shoot apex to expand or elongate, and this (rather than cell division) is what causes the plant to increase in height. In woody plants, auxins also stimulate cell division in the cambium, which produces vascular tissue. Auxins inhibit the growth of lateral buds so that the plant grows upwards more than outwards. They can be produced artificially in laboratories for such purposes as speeding plant growth and regulating how fast fruit will ripen
Gravitropism
response to gravity,auxin & gibberellin, starch statolith plastids
Thigmotropism
response to touch
Photoperiodic
long-day plants flower in longer days / shorter nights, short-day plants flower in shorter days / longer nights, day-neutral are not triggered by daylight changes
ground tissues
parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
parenchyma
the fundamental tissue of plants, composed of thin-walled cells able to divide.
collenchymas
A supportive tissue of plants, consisting of elongated living cells with unevenly thickened walls
sclerenchyma
supporting or protective tissue composed of thickened, dry, and hardened cells.
epidermis
a thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns.
cuticle
a very thin hyaline film covering the surface of plants, derived from the outer surfaces of the epidermal cells
Xylem
a compound tissue in vascular plants that helps provide support and that conducts water and nutrients upward from the roots, consisting of tracheids, vessels, parenchyma cells, and woody fibers.
Tracheids
A cell in the xylem of vascular plants.
vessel elements
A plant has two organ systems: 1) the shoot system, and 2) the root system. The shoot system is above ground and includes the organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers (if the plant has any), and fruits (if the plant has any). The root system includes those parts of the plant below ground, such as the roots, tubers, and rhizomes.
transpiration
transfer of water from plants to the atmosphere
Phloem
the part of a vascular bundle consisting of sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers and forming the food-conducting tissue of a plant.
sieve tubes
interconnected through pores/sieve plates, companion cells connected to sieve tubes through plasmodesmata giving physiological support
Conduction
The transfer of sound waves, heat, nervous impulses or electricity.
functional maturity
loss of nuclei, ribosomes & central vacuole
Meristem
embryonic tissue in plants; undifferentiated, growing, actively dividing cells.
Primary
Growth in vascular plants resulting from the production of primary tissues by a primary meristem. Elongation of the plant body is usually a consequence of primary growth.
apical root
root cap, zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of maturation/differentiation
secondary growth
: increase in girth
lateral meristems
vascular cambium (2° xylem & 2° phloem), cork cambium (periderm & bark)
Root
a part of the body of a plant that develops, typically, from the radicle and grows downward into the soil, anchoring the plant and absorbing nutriment and moisture.
Cortex
the portion of a stem between the epidermis and the vascular tissue; bark.
Endodermis
a specialized tissue in the roots and stems of vascular plants, composed of a single layer of modified parenchyma cells forming the inner boundary of the cortex.
Casparian strip
A single layer of tightly packed cells that forms the endodermis of a plant.
Stele
the central cylinder or cylinders of vascular and related tissue in the stem, root, petiole, leaf, etc., of the higher plants
Leaf
one of the expanded, usually green organs borne by the stem of a plant.
upper palisade mesophyll
the upper layer of ground tissue in a leaf, consisting of elongated cells beneath and perpendicular to the upper epidermis and constituting the primary area of photosynthesis.
lower spongy mesophyll
the lower layer of the ground tissue of a leaf, characteristically containing irregularly shaped cells with relatively few chloroplasts and large intercellular spaces.
stomates
any of various small apertures, esp. one of the minute orifices or slits in the epidermis of leaves, stems, etc., through which gases are exchanged.
guard cells
either of two specialized epidermal cells that flank the pore of a stoma and usually cause it to open and close.
Auxin
promotes plant growth, cell elongation; apical dominance
Gibberellins
cell growth, fruit development; bigger grapes
Cytokinins
promote cell growth (cytokinesis); apical dominance
Ethylene
promote fruit ripening
Abscisic acid
maintains seed & bud dormancy