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105 Cards in this Set

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root system
All the roots of a plant.
fibrous root
A root system made up of many threadlike members of more or less equal length, as in most grasses.
taproot
a main root descending downward from the radicle and giving off small lateral roots.
adventitious
appearing in an abnormal or unusual position or place, as a root.
nodes
point which leaves are attached
axillary bud
stucture that has the otential to form a vegetative branch
petiole
joins tghe leaf to a node of the stem
epidermis
single layer of tightly packed cells that covers and protects all young parts of the plant
xylem
conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots in the shoots
phloem
transports food made in mature leaves to the roots and to nonphotosyntetic parts of the shoot system
tracheids
A cell in the xylem of vascular plants.
xylem vessels
micropipes
sieve plates
end walls between sieve tube members in angiosperms
companion cell
nonconduting cell
pith
internal to the vascular tissue
tracheids
A cell in the xylem of vascular plants.
xylem vessels
micropipes
sieve plates
end walls between sieve tube members in angiosperms
companion cell
nonconduting cell
pith
internal to the vascular tissue
osmosis
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
water potential
physical property predicting direction in which water will flow, governed by solter concentration and applied pressure
tension
negative pressure on water or solutions
flacid
limp
turgid
firm
turgor pressure
force directed agaist a cel wall after the influx of water and the swelling of a walled cell due to osmosis
aquaporins
transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell thatspecifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane
tonoplast
membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, seperatingthe cytosol from the cell sap
bulk flow
movement of water due to a defference in pressure between two locations
mycorrhizae
mutualistic association of plant root and fungus
transpiration
evaporative loss of water from a plant
guttation
exudation of water droplets, caused by root pressure in certain plants
transpiration to photosynthesis ratio
amount of water lost per gram of carbon dioxide assimilater into organic material by photosynthesis
circadian rhythems
physiological cycle of about twenty four hours that is present in all ekaryotic organsms
translocation
transport via phloem of food in a plant
sugar sink
plant organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar
transfer cells
companion cells with numerous in growths of their walls which increase the cells surace area
essential nutrient
chemical element that is reuired for a plant to grow from a seed and complete the life cycle
macronutrient
chemical substance that an organism must obtain in relatively large amounts
micronutrients
needs in very small amounts and that functions as a componentor cofactor of enzymes
topsoil
mixture of particles derived from root living organisms, and humus
loams
most fertile of all soils, loams are made up of roughly equal amounts of snad, silt,and clay
cation exchange
process in which positivly charged minerals are made available to plant when hydrogen ions in the soil displace mineral ions from the clay particles
nitrogenase
enzyme complex, unique to certain prokaryotes that reduce N2 to NH3
nodules
swellings on the roots of legumes
bacteroids
from of rhizobium contained within the vesicles formed by the root cells of a rood nodule
carpels
female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of a stigma, style, and ovary
sepals
whorl of modified leavesin anigosperms that encloses and protects the flower bud before it opens
anther
terminal pollen sac of a stamen, inside which olen grains wth male gametes formin the flower of an angiosperm
pollen grain
structures that contain the immture male gametophyte
embryo sac
femal gametophyte of angiosperm, formed from growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei
nitrogen fixation
assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokayrotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants
growth
IRREVERSIBLE INCREASE IN MASS THAT RESULTS FROM CELL DIVISION and cell expansion
development
sum of all of the changes that progressively elaborate and organisms body
anuuals
plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season
biennial
plant tat requires two ear to complete its life cycle
perennial
plant that lives for many years
meistems
plant tissue that remains embyronic as long as the [lant lives, allowing for ineterminiate growth
sclerids
short, irregular sclerenchyma cell in nutshells and seed coats and scattered through the parenchymas
root cap
cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem
zone of elongation
region of the root tip adjacent to the zone of cell divisio
ground meristem
primary meristem that gives rise to gground tissue in plants
stele
central vascular cylinder in roots where xylem and phloem are loated
endodermis
innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots
pericycle
layer of cells just inside the endodermis of a root that may become meristematic and begin dividing again
vascular bundles
stand of vacular tissues in a plant stem
stomata
microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange
gard cells
specialized epidermal plant cell that forms the boundaries of the stomata
mesophyll
ground tissue of a leaf, sandwhiched between the upper and lower epidermis
fusiform initials
cambium cells within the vacular bundles
periderm
protective coat that replaces the epidermis in plants secondary growth
fusiform initials
cambium cells within the vacular bundels
bark
tissues externaml to the vascular cambium in a plant growing in the thickness, consisting of phloem, cork cambium and cork
morphogenesis
development of body shape and organization during ontogeny
differentiation
structural and functional divergene of cells as they become specialized during a multicellular organisms development
preprophase band
microtubles in the cortex of a cell that are concetrated int a ring
positional information
signals to which gees regulating development respond, indicating a cells location relative to other cells in embryonic structure
polarity
lack of symmetry
phase change
shift from one development phase to another
organ identity genes
plant gene in which a mutation causes a floral organ to develop in the wrong location
transport protein
transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substance to cross the membrane
proton pump
active transport mechanism in cell membranes that consumes ATP to force hydrogen ions out of cell
chemiosmosis
energy coupling mechanism that uses energy gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work such as the synthesis of ATP
lenticels
One of the small, corky pores or narrow lines on the surface of the stems of woody plants that allow the interchange of gases between the interior tissue and the surrounding air
sporophyte
the form of a plant in the alternation of generations that produces asexual spores
monoecious
referring to a plant species tat has both staminate and carpellate flowers on the same individua;
dioecious
referring to a plant species tat has staminate and capellate flowers on seperate plants
megaspore
sprore from a heterosporous plant hat develops into a female gametophyte bearing archegonia
self incompatibility
capatibility of certain flowers to block fertilization by pollen from the same or a closely related plant
hypocotyl
embronic axis below the point at which the cotyledons are attached
radicle
embryonic root of a plant
scutellum
specialized type of cotyledon found in the grass family
apomixis
asexual production of seeds
scion
twig grafted onto the stock when making a raft
stock
plant that provides the root systems when making a graft
second messengers
a small, nonprotein, water soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cells interior in response to a signal recieved by asignalsreceptor protein
hormones
any one of the many circulating organisms that are formed in specialized cels, travel in body fluids, and coordinate the various parts of the organism by interacting with target cells
phototropism
growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light
auxin
class of plant hormones, including indoleacetic acid, having a ariety ofeffects, such as phototropic response throught the stimulation of ell elongation similation of secondary growth, and the development of leaf traes and fruit
phytoalexins
an antibiotic, produced by plants, that destroys microorganisms or inhibits their growth.
apoptosis
programed cell death brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cells detined to die
action specturm
profile of the relative performance of defferent wavelenghs of light
graviropism
a response of a plant or animal in relation ot gravity
statoliths
sensory organs that contain mechanoreceptors and functions i nthe sense of equilibrium
thirmotropism
directional growth of a plant in relation to touch