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31 Cards in this Set

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Describe the Olmec civilization in terms of politics, religion, economy, and society.
Olmecs were the 1st civilization; caste system with aristocrats & priests on top; most important legacy is preistly devotion/worship; temples instead of true cities; influence spread thru trade; invent calendar & writings.
very religeous, practically 'live in temples' first civilization.
The World of the Mayas had pyramid-like temples used to bury______/______ & for religeous ceremonies. Located in ________, Guatemala. There caste system consisted of: in that order. They had heiroglyphs, books, mathematicians/astronomers & ________.
priests,nobles; Tikal;chief, nobles/military leaders/officials & farmers; numbering system
numbering system.
Describe the jobs of the Maya farmers, officials, and priests.
Farmers pay taxes w/food & build temples. Officials manages public works, collects taxes, & enforce laws. Priests preform ceremnonies for harvest/war.
polythestic religeon pray to gods to get good fortune.
What was the Maya economy like and how did they decline?
Economy was trade. they trade cotton, spices, and food along roads. Decline etiher by wars preventing farming; overpopulation/overfarming; or peasatn revolts against high taxes.
too much people farm the land. unfair taxes. farming could not be continued.
What was the city that influenced the Aztecs like?
Teotihuacan--wide roads; temples for many gods; apartments.
rain and nature gods. live in tall structures that house many units.
Where did the Aztec civilization flourish and what was the people's way of life?
Flourished on an island in the middle of Lake Texcohco; capital Tenochtitlan; create chinampas (fake islands of earth anchored to lake bed)to make more farm land; built stone causeways link to mainland & canals for transportation.
expanded thru conquests/alliances from west Gulf to east Pacific
Describe in depth their govenremnt, religeon, and society.
caste: single king, nobles, warriors, farmers, slaves. nobles elect kings, serve as judges, govners. warrirors raise status by killing/capturing enemies. slaves mostly POWs that could own land & boy freedom. Long distance Connections w/long distance traders/barters who also work as spies for them. preists separate class. many gods. cheif god sun god recieve streneght thru human sacrifices. preists educated record history & laws. sons of nobles attend schools. prophets. astronomy/math. herbal physicians.
What is the Chavin empire like?
built huge temple complex in Chavin de Huantar in Andes. stone masonry, pottery. many gods. influence peru.
Who were the Mochinas?
lived along coast, farmers, had contacts, artisans, warriors, muscians.
Who were teh Nazcas?
desert people. had heiroglyphs, heraldry/calendar.
Sum up the Incan Empire.
founded by Sapa Inca (king) Pachacuti. conquests. enlist those conquered. Ecuador to Chile. rule divinley/absolute. king religeous leader as well. queen rule in absence. nobles rule provinces w/conquered cheiftans. officials collect tax/enforce laws. create quipus, colored knotted rope, for counting.
What did they do to create unity? What forms of transportation did they have/create?
impose language, Quechua, and religeon. built bridges, roads, steps, tunnels to march armies only. outposts for guards.
what was daily life like?
arrange marriages. close knit alluys or communitites. mayors/govn'rs. farming expand step terraces. work for self, king, temples. divide harvest for gov't., people, and storage for famines. worked with alloy. make statues of gods, untensils, decoration. develop anestetics, surgery on human skull, hygeine. chief sun god Inti. no human sacrifice.
Who were teh Hohokams?
"Vanished Ones". farmers. complex irrigation. live near Gila River. Temple mounds, ball courts. drought force to leave.
Who were the Anazazi?
multi-story cliff dwellings in canyon wall. subterranean worhsip centers known as kiva. attack by Navajo& Apache. wall paintings. adobe bricks.
Describe the Cahokia?
Mississipians. rulers/nobles live ontop of mounds. largest had summit/temple. no writings.
Who lived in the frozen north?
inuits who hunted, fished, built dogsleds, kayaks, igloos or sod dwellings partially underground.
What was teh Irogois League?
Prophet Dekanawidah urge rival tribes to cease fighting and become founders of League. alliances of 5 nations who spoke same language/similar customs. held council w/each other. men attended, selected by 'clan mother' also fired by clan mother. Iroquoi lifestyle is women farm, men hunt/fight. large villages in woodlands.
What were the Bantu migrations?
W. African famers/herders move south/east btwn AD500-1500. speak varity of langugaes base on Bantu.
Where was the Nile Kingdom of Nubia located and what was thier lifestyle like?
located upper nile. rule egypt for century & learn customs. Meroe capital. trade gold, ivory, animals skins. polythesitc. control river trade routes. own system of ABC conquer by Axum.
North Africa had blank rule. Under that rule, dams, roads, cities, and blank was built. also had farmlands. Provided blank to fight gladiators. also provide soliders. Blank spread.
Roman; aqueducts; lions; Christianty spread.
Blank/trade brought from Asia. Revolutionized trade across desert, crete new trade routes.
blank brought by Arabs. became blank religeon. Arabic replace blank. Through blank Muslims broughtthis religeon to West Africa.
Islam; dominant; Latin; trade.
Ghana's capital was blank in blank separate towns. one towon teh blank resides, the other blank merchants occupy. they are employed as blank/officals. Gradually asborb teh blank techniques/ideas on govt. creat own blank, blank, blank, and blank. Invaded by blanks and later conquered by blank.
Kumbi Saleh. two. king. Muslim. Counselors. Military. coinage. language. architect. business. pious Muslims of North Almoravids. Mali
The kings of Mali were known as blank. the greates was blank blank. he convert to blank and base govt on blank. Under his rule, women were allowed to show blank and were not blank at home. This king fufill blank and made alliances with other blank states. blank bcame center of blank.
mansas. Mansa Musa. Islam. Quran. Show. Secluded. hajj. Muslim. Timbaktu learning
Who were the 2 great leaders of the Songhai empires and what did they do?
Soldier king Sonni Ali control trade routes/TImbaktu. not Islamic. After death Aski Muhummad set up Muslim dysnasty. furhter expand. improve govt. had bureaucracies. did hajj. built mosques/schools for study of Quran.
What did the ruler of Morroco do?
a. negotiate w/West Africa
b. form alliance w/W. Africa.
c. use gunpowdwer and armies to conquer gold mines, but were not able to rule.
T or F Songhai split into small kingdoms.
T or F Kano was a poor city sate of Hausa and devloped writing based on Latin.
It's king was king Muhummad Rumfa and he courted Muslim officials.
Later conquered by women ruler Amina.
Hausa did not dominate Saharan trade routes.
F. rich city. base on Arabic.
T. T. F. did dominate.
The Great Zimbabwe had all the following:
a. walled palaces. b. mined gold. of manufacturing. d. god-king. e. only king held power. f. decline due to overpopulaton and invasion.
a, b, c,d.
(e. king share power w/queen mom & 9 other queens; f. decline due to overfarming, civil war, disease. )
T or F. Villages of Kongo govern by king.
Chiefs select base on noble deeds.
Rule w/traditional law.
Standing army.
collect taxes directly from payers in form of coins.
T. F. select base on heritage. T.F. No standing army; men call upon when needed. F. collect indrieclty thru govners in form of goods or cowries.