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110 Cards in this Set

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phylogeny
the development or evolution of a particular group of organisms.
systematics
the study and classification of organisms with the goal of reconstructing their evolutionary histories and relationships
fossil records
A term used by paleontologists (see paleontology) to refer to the total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them. (See evolution of Earth.)
binomial
Consisting of or relating to two names or terms.
genus
the usual major subdivision of a family or subfamily in the classification of organisms, usually consisting of more than one species
polyphyletic
developed from more than one ancestral type, as a group of animals
phenetics
classification of organisms based on measurable similarities and differences rather than genetic makeup and evolutionary descent
paraphyletic
composed of some but not all members descending from a common ancestor
homology
a fundamental similarity based on common descent.
b. a structural similarity of two segments of one animal based on a common developmental origin
clade
a taxonomic group of organisms classified together on the basis of homologous features traced to a common ancestor.
outgroup
people outside one's own group, esp. as considered to be inferior or alien; a group perceived as other than one's own.
analogy
an analogous relationship.
phylum
the primary subdivision of a taxonomic kingdom, grouping together all classes of organisms that have the same body plan.
pangea
the hypothetical landmass that existed when all continents were joined, from about 300 to 200 million years ago.
parsiomony
extreme or excessive economy or frugality; stinginess; niggardliness.
adaptive zone
adaptive zone. (biology) an environment that allows the development of adaptive
radiation.
kingdom
a taxonomic category of the highest rank, grouping together all forms of life having certain fundamental characteristics in common: in the five-kingdom classification scheme adopted by many biologists, separate kingdoms are assigned to animals (Animalia), plants (Plantae), fungi (Fungi), protozoa and eucaryotic algae (Protista), and bacteria and blue-green algae (Monera).
hybridization
to cause to produce hybrids; cross.
2. to breed or cause the production of (a hybrid).
taxon
in biology, a term used to denote any group or rank in the classification of organisms, e.g., class, order, family.
family
the usual major subdivision of an order or suborder in the classification of plants, animals, fungi, etc., usually consisting of several genera
evolution
change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by such processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift.
order
the usual major subdivision of a class or subclass in the classification of organisms, consisting of several families.
phylogenetic
the development or evolution of a particular group of organisms.
epithet
any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality
geological time scale
Revisions to the relative time scale have occurred since the late 1700s.
The numerically calibrated geologic time scale has been continuously refined
stromatolites
A widely distributed sedimentary structure consisting of laminated carbonate or silicate rocks, produced over geologic time by the trapping, binding, or precipitating of sediment by groups of microorganisms, primarily cyanobacteria.
protobiont
A protobiont is an aggregate of abiotically produced organic molecules
ribozyme
a segment of RNA that can act as a catalyst.
acritarch
any of various microfossils, of unknown biological affinities, having a central cavity enclosed by a wall of chiefly organic composition
apicomplexan
Any of a phylum (Apicomplexa) of protozoans that are parasitic in animals, especially animal bloodstreams, and are distinguished by a variety of organelles, including fibrils and microtubules, located at one end (called the apical end) of the cell.
sporophyte
the form of a plant in the alternation of generations that produces asexual spores
protozoa
a major grouping or superphylum of the kingdom Protista, comprising the protozoans
diatoms
Any of various microscopic one-celled or colonial algae of the class Bacillariophyceae, having cell walls of silica consisting of two interlocking symmetrical valves.
gametophyte
the sexual form of a plant in the alternation of generations
algae
any of numerous groups of chlorophyll-containing, mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms ranging from microscopic single-celled forms to multicellular forms 100 ft.
ciliates
Any of various protozoans of the class Ciliata, characterized by numerous cilia.
heteromorphic
dissimilar in shape, structure, or magnitude
syngamy
union of gametes, as in fertilization or conjugation; sexual reproduction
conjugation
the reproductive process in ciliate protozoans in which two organisms of different mating types exchange nuclear material through a temporary area of fusion.
isomorphic
different in ancestry, but having the same form or appearance.
plankton
The collection of small or microscopic organisms, including algae and protozoans, that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water, especially at or near the surface, and serve as food for fish and other larger organisms.
detritus
rock in small particles or other material worn or broken away from a mass, as by the action of water or glacial ice.
flagellates
Resembling or having the form of a flagellum; whiplike
amoebas
Any of various one-celled aquatic or parasitic protozoans of the genus Amoeba or related genera, having no definite form and consisting of a mass of protoplasm containing one or more nuclei surrounded by a flexible outer membrane. It moves by means of pseudopods.
thallus
a simple vegetative body undifferentiated into true leaves, stem, and root, ranging from an aggregation of filaments to a complex plantlike form
lichens
A fungus, usually of the class Ascomycetes, that grows symbiotically with algae, resulting in a composite organism that characteristically forms a crustlike or branching growth on rocks or tree trunks.
stipe
a stemlike part, as a footstalk; stalk.
blade
The leaf of grasses or similar plants.
isogamy
the fusion of two gametes of similar form, as in certain algae
laminarin
A polymer of glucose and mannitol that is the main form of food storage of brown algae
stomata
a mouth or ingestive opening, esp. when in the form of a small or simple aperture
sporophyte
the form of a plant in the alternation of generations that produces asexual spores
mosses
Any of various green, usually small, nonvascular plants of the class Musci of the division Bryophyta
liverworts
Any of numerous small, green, nonvascular plants of the class Hepaticae within the division Bryophyta.
lignin
an organic substance that, with cellulose, forms the chief part of woody tissue.
angiosperm
a plant having its seeds enclosed in an ovary; a flowering plant
xylem
a compound tissue in vascular plants that helps provide support and that conducts water and nutrients upward from the roots, consisting of tracheids, vessels, parenchyma cells, and woody fibers.
phloem
the part of a vascular bundle consisting of sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers and forming the food-conducting tissue of a plant.
ferns
Any of numerous flowerless, seedless vascular plants having roots, stems, and fronds and reproducing by spores.
homosporous
having the spores of one kind only.
nucellus
the central cellular mass of the body of the ovule, containing the embryo sac.
fiber
filamentous matter from the bast tissue or other parts of plants, used for industrial purposes
anther
the pollen-bearing part of a stamen
integument
a natural covering, as a skin, shell, or rind.
stigma
a small mark, spot, or pore on an animal or organ
ovule
a small egg.
sepal
one of the individual leaves or parts of the calyx of a flower
conifer
plant producing naked seeds in cones, or single naked seeds as in yews, but with pollen always borne in cones
stamen
the pollen-bearing organ of a flower, consisting of the filament and the anther
tracheids
A cell in the xylem of vascular plants.
hyphae
in a fungus) one of the threadlike elements of the mycelium
asci
the sac in ascomycetes in which the sexual spores are formed
ascocarp
(in ascomycetous fungi) the fruiting body bearing the asci, as an apothecium or perithecium
septa
a dividing wall, membrane, or the like, in a plant or animal structure; dissepiment
conidia
(in fungi) an asexual spore formed by abstriction at the top of a hyphal branch.
lichen
any complex organism of the group Lichenes, composed of a fungus in symbiotic union with an alga and having a greenish, gray, yellow, brown, or blackish thallus that grows in leaflike, crustlike, or branching forms on rocks, trees
haustoria
a projection from the hypha of a fungus into the organic matter from which it absorbs nutrients
basidium
a small club-shaped structure typically bearing four basidiospores at the ends of minute projections; unique to basidiomycetes
chitin
a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, related chemically to cellulose, that forms a semitransparent horny substance and is a principal constituent of the exoskeleton, or outer covering, of insects, crustaceans, and arachnids
chytrids
any of the simple, algaelike fungi constituting the class Chytridiomycetes, order Chytridiales, of aquatic and soil environments, having flagellated zoospores and little or no mycelium.
dorsal
situated on or toward the upper side of the body, equivalent to the back, or posterior, in humans
ingestion
to take, as food, into the body
ventral
situated on or toward the lower, abdominal plane of the body; equivalent to the front, or anterior, in humans.
anterior
(in humans) pertaining to or toward the front plane of the body, equivalent to the ventral surface of quadrupeds.
blastopore
the opening of an archenteron
triploblastic
having three primary germ layers, as the embryos of vertebrates.
bilateria
having bilateral symmetry,
blastula
the early developmental stage of an animal, following the morula stage and consisting of a single, spherical layer of cells enclosing a hollow, central cavity.
larva
the immature, wingless, feeding stage of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis
archenteron
the primitive enteron or digestive cavity of a gastrula
polyp
a sedentary type of animal form characterized by a more or less fixed base, columnar body, and free end with mouth and tentacles, esp. as applied to coelenterates
medusa
Zoology. a saucer-shaped or dome-shaped, free-swimming jellyfish or hydra
entomology
the branch of zoology dealing with insects
echinoderms
Any of numerous radially symmetrical marine invertebrates of the phylum Echinodermata, which includes the starfishes, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers, having an internal calcareous skeleton and often covered with spines.
radula
a chitinous band in the mouth of most mollusks, set with numerous, minute, horny teeth and drawn backward and forward over the floor of the mouth in the process of breaking up food
cnidae
One of the peculiar stinging, cells found in C[oe]lenterata; a nematocyst; a lasso cell.
mandibles
the bone of the lower jaw
torsion
the act of twisting.
osculum
a small mouthlike aperture, as of a sponge
molting
To shed periodically part or all of a coat or an outer covering, such as feathers, cuticle, or skin, which is then replaced by a new growth.
endothermic
relating to an organism that generates heat to maintain its body temperature, typically above the temperature of its surroundings; warm-blooded.
amniotes
Any of a group of vertebrates that have an amnion during embryonic development, including reptiles, birds, and mammals.
operculum
part or organ serving as a lid or cover, as a covering flap on a seed vessel.
ostracoderms
Any of several groups of extinct primitive jawless fishes of the Ordovician through the Devonian periods in North America and Europe, having bodies that were encased in an armor of bony plates.
therapsids
Any of various reptiles of the order Therapsida of the Permian and Triassic periods, many of which are considered to be direct ancestors of mammals.
placenta
the part of the ovary of flowering plants that bears the ovules
cloaca
the common cavity into which the intestinal, urinary, and generative canals open in birds, reptiles, amphibians, many fishes, and certain mammals
somites
A segmental mass of mesoderm in the vertebrate embryo, occurring in pairs along the notochord and developing into muscles and vertebrae.
chelonia
green turtles
2. tortoises and turtles
notochord
a rodlike cord of cells that forms the chief axial supporting structure of the body of the lower chordates, as amphioxus and the cyclostomes, and of the embryos of the vertebrates