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31 Cards in this Set

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Timolol is a?
-beta-adrenergic blocker
-both B1 (heart) & B2 (lungs) receptors
Beta-adrenergic blockers actions & use
-glaucoma
-selectively blocks receptors in eye so less aqueous humor is produced by the ciliary bodies
-fluid also absorbs slightly faster
-both actions reduce IOP
beta-adrenergic blockers local adverse effects
-generally minimal. complaints of transient ocular stinging, conjunctivitis, blurred vision, photophobia, dry eyes
beta-adrenergic blockers systemic adverse effects
-effects on heart: bradycardia, AV heart block
-effects on lung: constriction of bronchi, bronchospasm
-can induce hypoglycemia & also mask hypoglycemic symptoms
beta-adrenergic blockers nursing implications
-ask if pt. has asthma or COPD
-warn diabetic patients to check blood glucose levels more often
-teach to take pulse at least twice per day
Latanoprost is a?
prostaglandin analog
Prostaglandin analog purpose/actions
-glaucoma
-lower IOP by dilating blood vessels in trabecular mesh, where aqueous humor is reabsorbed
-collect more aqueous humor & allows more fluid to leave eye
Prostaglandin analog side effects
-heightened brown pigmentation of iris
-increase pigmentation of eyelids
-increase growth & pigmentation of eyelashes
-blurred vision, burning, stinging
Prostaglandin analog nursing interventions
-teach to check cornea for abrasions/other signs of trauma
-if only one eye is treated, teach not to place drops in other eye to try to make colors similar
-warn that using higher doses than prescribed can reduce effectiveness
Pilocarpine is a?
cholinergic agonist
Cholinergic agonist purpose/actions
-glaucoma
-lower IOP by increasing outflow of aqueous humor
-make pupil smaller (iris sphincter constriction)
-more room between iris & lens (ciliary muscle constriction)
Cholinergic agonist side effects
-pupil of eye will not open more to let in more light - increases fall risk
-ciliary muscle constriction focuses lens for near vision - causes myopia
-systemic side effects are headache, flushing, increased saliva, sweating
Cholinergic agonist nursing implications
-may need corrective lenses for
-don't use more eyedrops than prescribed & report increased drooling/saliva
-use good light when reading & take care in dark rooms
Dorzolamide is a?
-carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
-topical
Dorzolamide purpose/action
-open-angle glaucoma
-lowers IOP by directly decreasing production of aqueous humor
Dorzolamide side effects
-ocular stinging, bitter taste following dosing
-allergic: conjunctivitis, lid reactions
-blurred vision, tearing, eye dryness, photophobia
Dorzolamide nursing implications
-ask if pt has allergy to sulfonamide antibacterial drugs
-shake drug before applying
-don't use eyedrops with contacts in place, wait 15 mins after dosing to put them in
cycloplegics and mydriatics action
-paralyze the ciliary muscle (cycloplegic) by blocking contraction
-dilate the pupil (mydriatics) by blocking iris sphincter contraction
-muscarinic antagonists
tropicamide is a?
cycloplegic/mydriatic
cyclopentolate is a?
cycloplegic/mydriatic
cycloplegics & mydriatics purpose
-facilitate diagnosis & surgery of ophthalmic disorders
-dilated pupil allows to look in eye
-paralyzing ciliary muscle prevents lens from undergoing changes in configuration
cycloplegics & mydriatics side effects
-blurred vision & photophobia
-precipitation of angle-closure glaucoma
-systemic: dry mouth, constipation, fever, tachycardia, CNS effects
cycloplegics & mydriatics nursing implications
-reassure that side effects (blurred vision, etc) should be gone in 6 hours
-use caution in pt predisposed to angle closure
pegaptanib and bevacizumab are?
angiogenesis inhibitors
Angiogenesis inhibitors purpose/action
-Wet AMD
-antagonizes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
-VEGF induces angiogenesis, increases vascular permeability, promotes inflammation
Angiogenesis inhibitors side effects
-endophthalmitis (inflammation inside eye caused by infection) is biggest concern but uncommon
-blurred vision, cataracts, conjunctival hemorrhage, corneal edema, eye discharge, increased IOP, ocular discomfort, vitreous floaters, reduced visual acuity
Angiogenesis inhibitors nursing implications
-drug is injected directly into eye every 4-6 wks
-pt who experience symptoms (redness, light sensitivity, pain) should seek immediate medical attention
meclizine is a?
antiemetic
meclizine purpose/action
-motion sickness
-blocks receptors that connects the inner ear to vomiting center
meclizine side effects
-sedation, dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, constipation
Amoxycillin
-used for otitis media if antibacterial drugs are indicated
-use high dose for 5-10 days
-cannot be used in penicillin allergies