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35 Cards in this Set

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Cell Theory
1. Cells, or products made by cells, are the units of structure and function in organisms
2. They are what make something alive
3. All cells come from preexisting cells
Made one of the first microscopes as a hobby.Dutch Drapery storeowner-not scientifically educated.Became first person to observe and describe microscopic organisms.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
- A Dutchman who Coined the term “cell” while viewing cork
- From Latin cella which means “storeroom” or “small container.”
Robert Hooke
- German botanist and started embryology.
- He stated that, “plants are made up of cells.”
Matthias Schleiden
- Created the term “cell theory”
- He stated that, “animals are also made of cells.”
Theodore Schwann
- A German pathologist who disagreed with spontaneous generation.
- Completed the thought behind the basic cell theory
- He stated that, “every cell comes from a cell.”
Rudolf Virchow
Cell Size
Average 10-20 micrometers in diameter
Nucleus generally 1/4 to 1/2 the size of the cell
Prokaryote Cells
No true nucleus
Small cells; (0.3-5 micrometers)
Make up unicellular organisms;bacteria (Kingdom monera)
functions of a prokaryote cell
Decomposers
Autotrophs
antibiotics
more are beneficial than harmful
Eukaryotic Cells
larger than prokaryotic cells;
average 10-50 micrometers in diameter
more complex, advanced and specialized than prokaryotic cells
Rigid Cell wall
1. Made of lipids, carbohydrates, and protein
2. No cellulose
Plasma membrane
1. encloses the cell
2. directs traffic into and out of cell
Mesosome
1. enfolding of plasma membrane
2. may aid in secretion of particles and in DNA copying
Single chromosome
1. circular molecule of double stranded DNA

2. attached to plasma membrane and enclosed in nucleoid
Plasmids
smaller circular DNA molecules
2. consist of a few genes
Organelle
Any part of the cell that has its own structure and
Function
Compartmentalization increases functional efficiency by isolating specific processes
Division of labor
Plasma Membrane
1. Encloses the contents of the cell
2. directs traffic into and out of the cell
Phospholipids
Fatty acids are non-polar (hydrophobic) and the phosphate is Polar (hydrophilic)
cell wall
1. Present in plant cells only
2. Surrounds and protects plasma membrane
3. Provides support
4. Composed of stiff fibers and complex carbohydrates
Cytoplasm
Cellular material which houses organelles
Cytosol
protein rich, semifluid material Surrounds and bathes organelles
Nucleus
Genetic control center

Contains chromosomes (genetic information) made of DNA and protein

Nuclear envelope: two layers which enclose the nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
System of membranes forming channels
2. connects organelles throughout cell
3. central role in biosynthesis reactions
Rough ER
studded with ribosomes
SMooth ER
not studded with ribosomes
Ribosome’s
1. small structures attached to ER
2. where protein synthesis occurs
Golgi Apparatus
Flattened, membranous structure

2. Prepare and package
macromolecules for delivery to other organelles
Vesicles
1. Spheres pinched off of golgi apparatus
2. Become export packages of the cell
Lysosomes
1. Site of intracellular digestion
2. Formed by budding of golgi apparatus
3. May leave the cell to attack foreign particles
Vacuole
1. Present in plant cells
2. Usually more than 50% of the total cell volume
3. stores water, nutrients, pigments, etc.
Chloroplasts
Present in plant cells only
Enclosed by a double membrane
Folded membranes inside form thylakoids, in which light absorbing pigments are embedded
Where photosynthetic reactions occur
Mitochondria
Enclosed by a double membrane
Inner membrane is highly folded
Where cellular respiration and ATP synthesis occur
Contain small amounts of DNA and RNA
Several hundred per cell
Centrioles
1. Present in animal cells only

2. Tubular structures which aid in cell
Reproduction
Flagella and Cilia
1. Extensions of cell surface

2. Used for locomotion or to interact with things outside the cell

3. Made of tubular proteins called microtubules
Cytoskeleton
1. Network of protein scaffolding

2. Provide shape, internal organization,
And movement for the cell

3. Holds organelles in place, allowing the cell to change shape
Microfilaments
1. Hollow microtubules which make up protein scaffolding
2. Solid but flexible