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30 Cards in this Set

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genetic equilibrium
Genetic variation is present throughout natural populations of organisms. This variation is sorted out in new ways in each generation by the process of sexual reproduction, which recombines the chromosomes inherited from the two parents during the formation of the gametes that produce the following generation
infinitely large population
The basic idea of statistics is simple: you want to extrapolate from the data you have collected to make general conclusions about the larger population from which the data sample was derived.
natural selection
the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind, thus ensuring the perpetuation of those favorable traits in succeeding generations.
mutations
change of the DNA sequence within a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type.
The process by which such a change occurs in a chromosome, either through an alteration in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA coding for a gene or through a change in the physical arrangement of a chromosome
gene flow
Transfer of genes from one population to another of the same species, as by migration or the dispersal of seeds and pollen.
random mating
A population mating system in which every female gamete has an equal opportunity to be fertilized by every male gamete.
non-equilibrium
a branch of thermodynamics concerned with studying time-dependent thermodynamic systems, irreversible transformations and open systems. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, as contrasted with equilibrium thermodynamics, is most successful in the study of stationary states, where there are nonzero forces, flows and entropy production, but no time variation. One of the early non-equilibrium systems to be discovered was the Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical oscillator.
founder effect
the accumulation of random genetic changes in an isolated population as a result of its proliferation from only a few parent colonizers.
bottleneck
narrowing that reduces the flow through a channel
sexual selection
a special type of natural selection in which the sexes acquire distinct forms either because the members of one sex choose mates with particular features or because in the competition for mates among the members of one sex only those with certain traits succeed.
adaptive radiation
the diversification of an ancestral group of organisms into a variety of related forms specialized to fit different environments or ways of life, each often further diversifying into more specialized types.
geographic isolation
The environment may impose an external barrier to reproduction, such as a river or mountain range, between two incipient species but that external barrier alone will not make them separate, full-fledged species. Allopatry may start the process off, but the evolution of internal (i.e., genetically-based) barriers to gene flow is necessary for speciation to be complete
reproductive isolation
the conditions, as physiological or behavioral differences or geographical barriers, that prevent potentially interbreeding populations from cross-fertilization.
prezygotic isolation
A type of reproductive isolation that occurs before the formation of a zygote can take place. In most cases mating does not even occur. Forms of prezygotic isolation include spatial, behavioral, mechanical and temporal isolation.
habitat isolation
This section describes mechanisms by which species may become reproductively isolated before a zygote can be formed. In some cases mating between species cannot occur, while in other cases mating occurs, but fails to produce a zygote
genetic equilibrium
Genetic variation is present throughout natural populations of organisms. This variation is sorted out in new ways in each generation by the process of sexual reproduction, which recombines the chromosomes inherited from the two parents during the formation of the gametes that produce the following generation
infinitely large population
The basic idea of statistics is simple: you want to extrapolate from the data you have collected to make general conclusions about the larger population from which the data sample was derived.
natural selection
the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind, thus ensuring the perpetuation of those favorable traits in succeeding generations.
mutations
change of the DNA sequence within a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type.
The process by which such a change occurs in a chromosome, either through an alteration in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA coding for a gene or through a change in the physical arrangement of a chromosome
gene flow
Transfer of genes from one population to another of the same species, as by migration or the dispersal of seeds and pollen.
random mating
A population mating system in which every female gamete has an equal opportunity to be fertilized by every male gamete.
non-equilibrium
a branch of thermodynamics concerned with studying time-dependent thermodynamic systems, irreversible transformations and open systems. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, as contrasted with equilibrium thermodynamics, is most successful in the study of stationary states, where there are nonzero forces, flows and entropy production, but no time variation. One of the early non-equilibrium systems to be discovered was the Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical oscillator.
founder effect
the accumulation of random genetic changes in an isolated population as a result of its proliferation from only a few parent colonizers.
bottleneck
narrowing that reduces the flow through a channel
sexual selection
a special type of natural selection in which the sexes acquire distinct forms either because the members of one sex choose mates with particular features or because in the competition for mates among the members of one sex only those with certain traits succeed.
adaptive radiation
the diversification of an ancestral group of organisms into a variety of related forms specialized to fit different environments or ways of life, each often further diversifying into more specialized types.
geographic isolation
The environment may impose an external barrier to reproduction, such as a river or mountain range, between two incipient species but that external barrier alone will not make them separate, full-fledged species. Allopatry may start the process off, but the evolution of internal (i.e., genetically-based) barriers to gene flow is necessary for speciation to be complete
reproductive isolation
the conditions, as physiological or behavioral differences or geographical barriers, that prevent potentially interbreeding populations from cross-fertilization.
prezygotic isolation
A type of reproductive isolation that occurs before the formation of a zygote can take place. In most cases mating does not even occur. Forms of prezygotic isolation include spatial, behavioral, mechanical and temporal isolation.
habitat isolation
This section describes mechanisms by which species may become reproductively isolated before a zygote can be formed. In some cases mating between species cannot occur, while in other cases mating occurs, but fails to produce a zygote