Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/40

Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Andes Mountains
large system of mountain ranges that runs through the western portion of Central and South America.
llanos
vast grassy, treeless plains of Colombia and Venezuela
cerrado
savannas found in Brazil with flat terrain and moderate rainfall suitable for farming
pampas
plains of grasslands and rich soil found in northern Argentina and Uruguay
Orinoco River
river in the northern part of S. America; runs through Venezuela
Amazon River
4000 mile long river that flows from the Andes to the Atlantic. It carries more water to the ocean than any other river in the world.
Paraná River
flows from southern Brazil through Paraguay and Argentina, emptying into the Atlantic at the Río de la Plata estuary.
rain forest
dense forests made up of different species of trees; located in a tropical wet climate
slash-and-burn
method of clearing a field that involves cutting trees, brush and grasses, and burning the debris
terraced farming
ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slopes by cutting step-like fields into the slopes
push factors
factors that push people to leave rural areas, including poor medical care, poor education, low-paying jobs, and ownership of the land by a few rich people
pull factors
factors that pull people toward cities, including higher-paying jobs, better schools, and better medical care
infrastructure
facilities needed in cities, such as sewers, transportation, electricity and housing
Tenochtitlán
Aztec city near the site of Mexico city
Spanish conquest
in 1519, Hernando Cortés from Spain conquered the Aztecs in Mexico
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
political party that controlled Mexico for 71 years, from 1929 to 2000
mestizo
people of mixed Spanish and Native American heritage
maquiladoras
factories in Mexico that assemble imported materials into finished products for export, mostly to the US
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement – Mexico, US and Canada - trade and economic agreement that encourages a zone of cooperation
cultural hearth
heartland or place of origin of a major culture
United Provinces of Central America
region of Central America that declared its independence from Mexico in 1823; later split into separate nations
Panama Canal
man-made canal that cuts through the land bridge to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, facilitating the exchange of both goods and ideas
calypso
music originated in Trinidad that includes elements from Africa, Spain and the Caribbean; songs frequently include steel drums and guitars and improvised lyrics
reggae
music style developed in Jamaica; many reggae songs deal with social problems and religion
informal economy
jobs that take place outside official channels, without benefits or protection for workers
Inca
advanced civilization from the Andes Mountains of Peru; in 1500, the Inca empire extended 2500 miles along the west coast of S. America
Mercosur
economic common market of S. America, which encourages a free-trade zone among member nations
Quechua
language of the Inca, which, although overshadowed by the Spanish, still is spoken today by native peoples
Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty between Portugal and Spain in 1494 that resulted in Portugal control over present-day Brazil
Carnival
colorful feast day with costumes and floats in Brazil, especially Rio de Janeiro (corresponds with Mardi Gras in US and Europe)
samba
Brazilian dance
capoeira
martial art and dance that developed in Brazil from African origins
biodiversity
wide range of plant and
animal species; the rainforest is known
for its biodiversity
deforestation
cutting down and clearing away of trees
global warming
the rising of the atmosphere’s temperature and the associated changing of weather patterns caused by carbon dioxide buildup
debt-for-nature swap
paying governments to preserve their forests.
oligarchy
government by a few persons
or a small group
caudillo
military dictator or political boss (e.g. Juan Perón in Argentina)
junta
government run by the generals
after a military takeover
land reform
breaking up large landholdings and giving portions of the land to land-poor peasant farmers