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34 Cards in this Set

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IL-6
Stem cell development into myeloid lymphoid progenitor cells
IL-3
Myeloid cell development in the marrow
G-CSF
Myeloid progenitor cells into netrophils
M-CSF
Myeloid progenitor cells into monocytes
IL-5
Myeloid progenitor cells into eosinophils
IL-11
Myeloid progenitor cells into basophils, platelets and erythrocytes
TNF-alpha
Stimulate release of mature neutrohils stored in BM; increase hematopoietic growth factors causing an increase in differentiation of myeloid precursor cells
Characteristics & Components of Primary Granules
C: Large (blue); formed early in neutrophil maturation
MC: Myeloperoxidase (MPO)
Characteristics & Components of Secondary Granules
C: Small (pink)
MC: Collagenase, plasminogen activator
Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia

MPO stain used to identify immature leukemic cells (called blasts) since myeloblasts stain positive for MPO
Chronic Granulatomous Disease
Cells can't form ROS (superoxides) to kill pathogens
Respiratory Burst
1. Bacteria binds FcR or CR1
2. NADPH oxidase enzyme converts 02 to superoxide
3. Superoxide converted to H202 (can kill but not very efficient)
4. H202 converted to OH (effective)
5. OH +Cl -> HOCl (highly effective, bleach)
Myeloperoxidase
Produces HOCl from H202/OH and Cl; used by neutrophil granulocytes to kill bacteria
Only gp91 is located on cell membrane before cell stimulated; 3 other cytoplasmic components join to form functional NADPH oxide enzyme
How can the NBT assay be used to diagnose CGD?
NBT( nitro blue terazolium) dye + neutrophils
Drop of LPS to stimulate neutrophils, which take up dye and stimulator
Normal neutrophils form ROS and turn deep purple
DHR Assay
Dihydrorhodamine (DHR) is reduced to fluorescent rhodamine in stimulated neutrophils if respiratory burst is intact
Fluorescence is measured by flow cytometry
LAD-1
Mutation in CD18 gene which encodes beta chain found in all B2 integrins (LFA-1)
LAD-2
Mutation in gene required for sialyl-Lewis X synthesis; pts get recurrent bacterial and fungal infections because their leukocytes have difficulty migrating to infection sites
How can gene mutatoins responsible for B2 integrins (LAD-1) affect T cells?
B2 integrins also expressed on Tcells; (LFA-I (B2) binds w/ ICAM-1)
Also LFA-1 is used for migration of activated T cell to infection site

However, no recurrent infections SOLELY attributable to defects in T cell activation
Steps in leukocyte migration (endothelial cells at infection sites produce IL-8; leukocytes bind via integrins; leukocytes diapedese into tissues towards microbes
Role of IFN-Alpha in Diapedesis
Activates macrophages to produce IL-1 and TNF-alpha
Increases production of nitric oxide (NO, microbicidal) by phagocytes
IL-1 and TNF-alpha in Diapedeses
Increase production/release of phagocytes from BM
Increase expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and production of chemokines (IL-8)
Gag (group specific antigens)
Structural proteins

p24: capsid protein
p17: matrix proteins
Pol
reverse transcriptase; produces dsDNA provirus -> proviral dsDNA integration into host DNA -> cleaves polyprotein

Reverse transcriptase: produces dsDNA provirus
Integrase: Proviral dsDNA integration into host DNA
Protease: Cleaves polyprotein
Env
Surface protein that binds to CD4 on host cell responsible for tropism; genetic drift transmembrane protein for cell fusion
Label gp41, gp120, P17, p24, the core, the envelope, RNA, Pol, nucleocapsid
The virion structure
Whats the difference between simple and complex retroviruses?
Simple: gag, pol, env genes
Complex: gag, pol, env, tat, rev, nef, etc
Stages of HIV infection
1. Acute
2. Latent; sublinical immune dysfunction
3. Progression to AIDs/systemic immune deficiency
Mechanism of Infection

1. Surface gp120 - CD4 of Th cells
2. HIV loses envelope, RNA uncoated
3. RNA copied using virion associated reverse transcriptase; dsDNA made
4. DNA and integrate into nucleus; DNA integrated into host DNA forming provirus (regulatory proteins determine rate of viral replication)
5. Transcription produces ss (+) RNAs
6. Translation produces proteins, assembly, maturation/release of virus
HIV Progression
Progression
Screening for HIV Infection
ELISA to detect HIV Ab in pts serum

Anti-p24 first reliably detected antbody but declines as viral titers rise later in infection; envelope ab rise more slowly but stay high at end (bc of major antigenic variation);

ELISA for p24 ag useful early
Confirmation of HIV infection (using second blood sample)
Western blot for ab specific to HIV (electrophoretically separated HIV antigens react with the pts ab; detection by enzyme labeled anti-human IgG or immunofluoresence
HIV Detection in Newborns
HIV DNA PCR
Anti-Retroviral Therapy Targets

Fusion inhibitors, Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs), Nonnucleoside RTIs, Protease Inhibitors, Integrase Inhibitors