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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
activation energy
energy needed to change potential energy into kinetic
amino acid
nitrogenous building blocks of protein molecules
what kind of cmpound is a carbohydrate?
organic
what 3 elements do carbohydrates contain?
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon
starch is a ____?
carbohydrate
what is the monomer of carbohydrates?
glucose
chemical energy
form of pontential energy stored in chemical bonds
dehydration synthesis
formation of complex organic compounds in which water is given off
dissacharide
sugar made of 2 simple sugar molecules
enzyme- lipid, protein, carb?
protein
lipids made of what?
3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol
enzyme=catalyst=?
speeds up processes
enzyme characteristics
1)speeds up reactions
2)1 specific reaction
3)never used up in reaction
4)protein, amino acids
5)lowers activation energy required for chmical reaction
enzyme suffix?
ase
potential energy
stored
kinetic energy
motion
conservation energy
in chemical reactions, neither created nor destroyed (transformed)
enzyme changes and conforms to the____?
substrate
condensation reaction
small molecules join to form larger molecules
nucleic acids found where?
in the nucleus
DNA=?
genetic code
RNA=?
copies DNA instructions to produce proteins
Nucleic Acid role
organism's code
atoms
building blocks of nature
element
composed of one type of atom
atomic number
number of protons
compound
combo of 2+ atoms of different elements joined by chemical bond
molecule
combo of 2+ atoms joined by covalent bond
covalent bond
combine by sharing electrons
ionic bond
attraction between ions, balance in order to be neutral,
physical properties
physical characteristics of matter
chemical properties
how matter behaves with other elements/compounds
chemical change
new substance with new properties formed
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed (chemical equations must be balanced= numbers of atoms on both sides af the arrows must be equal
solutions
mixture that are the same throughout but have variable composition
bases
pH above 7 (slippery, bitter taste, give off OH- in water)
acids
pH below 7 (gives off H+ in water, sour taste)
organic chemistry
contains carbon
inorganic chemistry
no carbon, except CO2, not produced by living things
structural formula
states kinds, # of atoms, arrangement
isomers
same chemical formula but different structural formula + properties
carbohydrates elements
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
(2 H:1 O)
Carbohydrate role
quick energy, cell structures
Monosaccharide
- 1 sugar
- glucose, fructose
- Benedicts=orange/red
Disaccharide
- 2 sugars
- sucrose, lactose, maltose
- Benedicts= no change, light blue
Polysaccharide
- many sugars
- starch, glycogen, cellulose
- Iodine test= inky blue
Lipid Elements
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (more H than O)
Lipid Types
fats= animal (solid)
oils= plant (liquid)
waxes= plant/animal
Lipid Role
stored energy, cell membrane
Lipid Groups
carboxyl(-COOH)
R(long chains of C-H)
Fatty Acid Types
Unsaturated
Saturated
Saturated
single covalent bonds- bad
Unsaturated
double covalent bonds- healthy
Protein Elements
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
Protein Roles (4)
1)build living material (muscle)
2)enzymes 4 chemical reactions
3)fight diseases
4)transport particle in/out of cells
Protein Structure
Amino Acids (3 groups)
Shape
Protein Groups
carboxyl, amino acid, r
denatured
protein changed shape andbecomes inactive (pH, temp.) (enzynme)
polypeptide
large molecule made of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
peptide bond
carbon-nitrogen bond linking amino acids to form polypeptides
substrate
substances enzymes cause to react
active site
enzyme's surface
does not exactly fit substrate shape so enzyme is like flexible key (slight change to fit substrate)
hydrolysis
large molecules converted to smaller ones by reverse condensation, addition of water
peptide
amino acids bonded together
dipeptide
2 amino acids link