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39 Cards in this Set

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Who postulated the living germ theory in the 1500's (after observing the syphilis epidemic of the time?
Girolamo Fracastorius
Who discovered the first microscope?
Never been proven - Janssen (1590), Galileo (1609), and Hooke (1660) were all early pioneers
Father of Microbiology; in 1667 was the first to describe "animacules" baceria in 3 shapes as well as sperm, blood cells, and protozoa.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Who associated macrobes to the disease process?
Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch (late 19th century)
Discovered immunology - used cowpox virus to immunize people against small pox
Edward Jenner
Father of immunology - based on his extensive work in developing vaccines against several disease including chicken cholera, anthrax, and rabies
Louis Pasteur
Who discovered that by attenuating or weakening the live pathogen, could effectively inoculate a subject and induce immunity
Louis Pasteur
abiogenesis
spontaneous generation - theory that living matter could arise from nonliving matter
biogenesis
theory that states life can only arise from preexisting life
Who disproved abiogenesis?
Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall (1861)
Discovered pasteurization (and define)
Louis Pasteur - by heating a liquid to a certain temperature, pathogens were destroyed that caused spoilage or disease
Developed the germ theory of disease
Louis Pasteur
Proved the germ theory of disease (and how?)
Joseph Lister - by using carbolic acid (phenol) on dressings, he significantly reduced wound infections
Who also contributed to the germ theory of disease by showing the relationship between bacteria and the death of cattle by anthrax
Robert Koch - also wrote the Koch's Postulates
Discovered viruses?
Dmitri Iwanowski - in 1892, demonstrated that pathogens taken from a tobacco plant were able to pass through filters that were too fine for any known bacteria
What is compound "606"?
arsphenamine (salvarsan), used for the treatment of syphilis until penicillin was introduced
Who introduced penicillin and when?
Alexander Fleming in 1928 (later purified for use in 1938 by Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain)
When was penicillin finally produced in sufficient quantities for general human use?
1942
Who is Gerhard Domagk?
intorduced prontosil (a dye) which, when broken down by the body, is a sulfanilamide that is effective against streptococcal infections (in 1935)
pre-nucleus
prokaryotae
have a distinct nucleus within a nuclear membrane
eukayotae
Where is genetic material held in prokaryotes?
within the entire prokaryote
Where is genetic material held in eukaryotes?
contained solely within the nucleus
What are the 5 Kingdoms of the living world?
Plantae (euk), Animalia (euk), Fungi (euk), Protista (euk), and Monera (prok)
define taxonomy
the science of classifying organisms based on features that are related or different
Name the 5 kingdoms of the living world and describe if each is prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
Plantae (euk), Animalia, (euk), Fungi (euk), Protista (euk), Monera (prok)
What are the 4 eukaryotic kingdoms of the living world?
Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Protista
Name the single prokaryotic kingdom of the living world.
Monera
Define Protista
one-celled organisms that remain one-celled throughout the life cycle; each unit is self-sufficient in meeting its own biological needs (have characteristics of both plants and animals)
What kingdom of Eukaryotae includes the following: protophyta (algae, Protomycota (slime molds), and protozoa?
Protista
Characteristics of Protozoa
*unicellular
*locomotion may be pseudopods, cilia, or flagella
*may reproduce sexually or asexually
*may be free living or parasitic
Characteristics of Algae
*unicellular
*light and air are necessary for growth
*motility is usually by flagella in various positions and numbers
*cell walls have a cellulose matrix
Characteristics of Fungi
*eukaryotic
*unicellular or multicellular
*cell wall composed mostly of chitin
*Yeasts are unicellular and are larger fungi than bacteria
*mycelia of long filaments are formed by molds
*do not contain chlorophyll
*no definite roots, stems, or leaves
What kingdom is composed of plants?
Plantae (not microorganisms)
What kingdom is composed of animals?
Animalia (not microorganisms)
What kingdom contains *cyanobacteria and bacteria?
Monera (eukaryotic)
Describe cyanobacteria:
*blue-green algae
*photosynthesis for energy production
*alkaline habitat
*gliding-type motility
*nitrogen fixation
Describe bacteria:
*genetic material not in a special membrane
*cell wall composed of peptidoglycan
*3 shapes
*reproduce by binary fission (2 daughter cells)
*flagella is the usual form of motility
*organic material is used for nutrition by most bacteria
List and describe the 3 shapes of bacteria:
1) bacillus - rod-like
2) coccus - sphere or ovoid
3) sprial - corkscrew