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74 Cards in this Set

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properties of water
excellent solvent,high heat capacity, moderating influence, evaporating cooling,ice floats, strong cohesion,surface tension,strong adhesion
carbohydrates
function:energy storage, structure ,groups: sugars, starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
proteins
function: structure, transport, defense, structure: amino acids, peptide bonds, 1°, 2°, 3°, 4° enzymes
lipids
function: energy storage, structure, hormones groups: triglycerides (fats, saturated, unsaturated), phospholipids, steroids (cholesterol, sex hormones)
nucleic acids
function: informatstructure: nucleotides, A,T,C,G,U ion storage, groups: DNA, RNA
enzyme structure
globular (4°) proteins, RNA
metabolic catalysts
lowers activation energy
catabolism
digestion, breakdown, hydrolysis
anabolism
synthesis, dehydration synthesis
lock & key model, induced fit model
enzyme-substrate complex, product(s)
“-ase
substrate specific, unchanged during reaction
effect function
pH, temperature, salts, [substrate], [enzyme]
Coenzymes
A nonproteinaceous organic substance that usually contains a vitamin or mineral and combines with a specific protein, the apoenzyme, to form an active enzyme system.
cofactors
A substance, such as a metallic ion or coenzyme, that must be associated with an enzyme for the enzyme to function
activators
a catalyst
allosteric
pertaining to regulation of the rate of an enzymatic process
cooperativity
the increase or decrease in the rate of interaction between a reactant and a protein as the reactant concentration increases.
inhibitors
One that inhibits, as a substance that retards or stops a chemical reaction.
competitive,
Relating to the inhibition of enzyme activity that results from the reversible combination of an enzyme with an alternate compound and prevents normal substrate binding
noncompetitive
involving or acting in inhibition of an enzyme by affecting its intrinsic catalytic activity rather than by competition with the substrate for the active site
negative feedback
a self-regulatory biological system, as in the synthesis of some hormones, in which the output or response affects the input, either positively or negatively
cell wall
the definite boundary or wall that is part of the outer structure of certain cells, as a plant cell.
chloroplasts
plant cell inclusion bodies that contain chlorophyll
central vacuole
a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion.
lysosomes
A membrane-bound organelle in the cytoplasm of most cells containing various hydrolytic enzymes that function in intracellular digestion.
centrioles
One of two cylindrical cellular structures that are composed of nine triplet microtubules and form the asters during mitosis
prokaryotes (bacteria
naked circular DNA, ribosomes, no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, sometimes cell wall (peptidoglycans)
eukaryotes
nucleus & membrane-bound organelles
phospholipid bilayer
a two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane, the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic phosphate ends facing outward.
hydrophilic heads
having a strong affinity for water
hydrophobic tails
having little or no affinity for water
fluid mosaic model
a conceptual model of cell membrane and its boundary as a tightly packed double layer of phospholipid molecules interspersed with protein molecules which aid cross-membrane transport
channel
a transient opening made by a protein embedded in a cell membrane, permitting passage of specific ions or molecules into or out of the cell
Nucleus
a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters.
ribosomes
specialized ribosomal RNA and
endoplasmic reticulum
a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials.
vesicles
A small bladderlike cell or cavity.
mitochondria
cells power source
flagella
threadlike appedage, movement
cytoskeleton
microtublues, intermediate filaments,microfilaments
desmosomes
type of junction that attaches a cell toits neighbor
plasmodesmata
a strand of cytoplasm that passes throught the cell wall and conncects protoplasts
selectivly permiable membrane
only allowa specific things in and out
diffusion
spotaneous movement of molecules or other particles in a solution
osmosis
tenedacy of wanter to flow through a semi permiable membrane
facilitated diffusion
in cell biology, a process by which substances are transported across cell membranes by means of protein carrier molecules; also called facilitated transport
active transport
the movement of ions or molecules across a cellular membrane from a lower to a higher concentration, requiring the consumption of energy.
hypertonic
noting a solution of higher osmotic pressure than another solution with which it is compared
hypotonic
noting a solution of lower osmotic pressure than another solution with which it is compared
isotonic
noting or pertaining to solutions characterized by equal osmotic pressure
plasmolysis
contraction of the protoplasm in a living cell when water is removed by exosmosis.
exocytosis
A process of cellular secretion or excretion in which substances contained in vesicles are discharged from the cell by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the outer cell membrane.
endocytosis
A process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell.
phagocytosis
The engulfing and ingestion of bacteria or other foreign bodies by phagocytes.
pinocytosis
Introduction of fluids into a cell by invagination of the cell membrane, followed by formation of vesicles within the cells.
glycolysis
the catabolism of carbohydrates, as glucose and glycogen, by enzymes, with the release of energy and the production of lactic or pyruvic acid.
cytosol
The fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually suspended, cytoplasmic components.
glucose
Also called starch syrup. a syrup containing dextrose, maltose, and dextrine, obtained by the incomplete hydrolysis of starch
Kreb’s (Citric Acid) Cycle
pyruvate . acetyl CoA . Kreb’s cycle yield: 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, CO2 (exhale)
function: produce electron acceptors for the ETC
matrix of mitochondria
anaerobic respiration:
no O2, lactic acid (animals), alcoholic fermentation (bacteria, yeast, plants
Photosynthesis
light + 6 H2O + 6 CO2 . C6H12O6 + 6 O2
chemiosmosis, autotrophs, chloroplasts
ATP & sugar production
stroma
the supporting framework or matrix of a cell
photorespiration
Oxidation of carbohydrates in plants with the release of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.
asexual reproduction
reproduction, as budding, fission, or spore formation, not involving the union of gametes.
Chromosomes
A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information
chromatids
Either of the two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome that are joined by a single centromere and separate during cell division to become individual chromosomes.
centromere
a specialized structure on the chromosome, appearing during cell division as the constricted central region where the two chromatids are held together and form an X shape.
interphase
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions. Also called interkinesis
prophase
the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes
metaphase
the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle.
anaphase
the stage in mitosis or meiosis following metaphase in which the daughter chromosomes move away from each other to opposite ends of the cell.
telophase
the final stage of meiosis or mitosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes.
cytokinesis
the division of the cell cytoplasm that usually follows mitotic or meiotic division of the nucleus.
cell division
triggered by growth (surface to volume ratio), density dependent inhibitio