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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a kinship network?
a type of social organization consisting of relatives, or kin, such as parents, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and those who marry into the family
What is a clan?
a type of kinship network, which consists of a group of families descended from a common ancestor
What is a hierarchy?
a social system of many levels in which each level has power over the levels beneath it
What is a patriarchal society?
a male-dominated social organization
What is a lineage?
a kinship network in which the members trace their descent from a common ancestor
Where is guinea?
in the center of the coastal region of West Africa that became the focus of trade between Europeans and Africans stretched from Morocco in the north, to the Congo River in the south. In the late 1400s, Guinea was home to three energetic forest kingdoms: Oyo, Ife, and Benin.
Where is songhai?
In the grasslands south of the Sahara. It was another area of African trade in the late 1400s. It's traders obtained goods such as gold and ivory from the forest kingdoms. Its capital city alone, Tombouctou, had a population of some 100,000 people. It was one of the largest empires in the world at that time.
Who was Christopher Columbus?
He had been born into a family of woolen weavers in Genoa, Italy. Stubborn and moody, he had devoted most of his 41 years to mastering the craft of navigation and to dogging European monarchs to win financing for this very voyage. He knew the earth was a sphere. Queen Isabella dubbed him High Admiral of the Ocean Sea.
What is the Atlantic World?
With Columbus' crossing in 1492, a regular, permanent exchange began among the people of the Americas, Africa, and Europe, involving goods and people, ideas and diseases. This exchange brought into existence a world of encounter.
What are conquistadors?
the Spanish conquerors
What is the encomienda system?
The Spanish attempted to force Native Americans into Spanish culture. One method the Spaniards used was this. Under this system, Native Americans were required to farm, ranch, or mine for the profit of an individual Spaniard. (similar to the social system of Europe)
What are presidios?
forts manned by a few soldiers
What are congretations?
With the help of soldiers, the priests forced the Native Americans into settled villages, where they were made to farm and worship like Catholic Europeans.
What is an indentured servant?
During the first 60 years after the founding of the colony, they turned primarily to these from England. These were people who had to work for a master for a period of time, under a contract called an indenture.
What is religious toleration?
the idea that people of different religions should live in peace
Who was Powhatan?
the leader of the Native Americans. the Spanish had captured his brother in the 1560s. In 1570 he returned to his own people.
Who are the Puritans?
The Reformation was a protest against what was seen as the corruption and inadequacy of the Catholic Church. The Reformation gave birth to a new form of the Christian religion, known as Protestantism. Those who wanted to "purify" the English Church from within where called these people.
Who is Metacom?
In the spring of 1675, the leader of the Wampanoag people, King Philip, could no longer bear seeing the newcomers destroy the world of his people, so he rallied the Native Americans and defended their way of life.
What is balance of trade?
to export more goods than were imported
What is salutary neglect?
Great Britain's colonial policy of now interfering in colonial politics and economy as long as such neglect served Britain's economic interests
What is triangular trade?
trade between the Americas, Europe, and Africa in the 1700s; supported New England economies.
What are gentry?
people, generally landowners, wealthy enough to afford others to work for them
What was the Middle Passage?
a section of the triangular trade from Africa to the Americas that transported enslaved persons
What was the Great Awakening?
a religious revival in the American colonies, 1730s-1740s

in the end, it became a challenge to the social and political order of British North America
What was the reformation?
it was a protest against what was seen as the corruption and inadequacy of the Catholic Church. It gave birth to a new form of the Christian religion, known as Protestantism.