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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Biodiversity-
a basic characteristic of life on earth
taxonomy
the theories and techniques of describing, grouping, and naming living things
polymorphism
having more then one form, for ex. if different alleles of the same gene are found within a population the population is considered to be polymorphic at the genetic locus
homologous
of antomical structurem sharing a common ancestor although the structure may look and function differently, such as a birds wing and a reptiles forelimb; of chromosomes, carrying the same genes
Homologous structures
these are structures that resemble
Analogous strutctures
parts that accomplish the same thing, but work differently
Binomial nomenclature
the two-word naming system used in taxnomy, consisting if genus and epithet name
cladistics
a systematic method of classification that relies on shared characteristics not found in other organisms
phenetics
a systematic method of classification that uses similarities based on phenotypic charactiresics, giving equal importantance to all characterisits
Name the 7 classification groups from specific to general
species,
genus,
family,
order,
class,
phylum,
kingdom
Wat are the 5 kingdoms
Monera, Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Protista
Protozoa
a one cel, mobile protista
Who came up with it
Leanus did
Metric system goes by powers of...
10
name the 7 prefixes necassary to know
kilo, hecto, deka, unit, deci, centi, milli, micro
what are the 6 steps to the scientific method
1. identify the problem
2. gather information
3. form a hypothesis
4. test hypothesis
5. record observations
6. draw conclusions
Independent variable
the factor that you manipulate for the experiment
dependent variable
the factor(s) that change because of the independent variable
control
the second experimental, no variable's involved, used for comparison
hypothesis
a testable statement --> can be used to build more complex inferences and explanations
theory
it is the best possible explanation to a problem that has not been disproved
law
a descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under stated circumstances
fact
an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed
If hypothesis is verified
retest, record, could lead to theory/law
if hypothesis is disproved
form a new hypothesis
try again
all the units and what they measure
meters-length/dsitance
grams-mass
liters- volume
celcius- temperature
you read volume(liters) with...
graduated cylinder
what do you call the curved surface of the liquid being measured in a graduated cylinder? how do u read it?
meniscus- look @ eye level and read the bottom of it
cm cubed=
1 mL
data tables are used for....
recording numerical data
line graphs show...
relationships
indpendent on ____ axis
dependent on ____ axis
x
y ( the one which depends on the experiment)
you should put _____ and ______ on graphs
units and title
species-
a group of organisms that are similar in structure and which mate under natural conditions to practice fertile offspring.
Why do classify animals?
1. common language
2. structural similarities
3. ancestral similarities
Prokaryotic
eukaryotic
primitive and cellular
advanced complex
sexual
asexual
produce sexually, or not sexually
autotrophic
heterotrophic
synthesizes own food
feeds off other organisms
aerobic
anaerboic
uses oxygen
does not use oxygen
homologous structures
analogous structures
vestigial structures
similar, but different in purpose

not similar, but same purpose

something that isn't used but an ancestor must have
embryology
the study of developing organisms
type of cells comprising organisms
prokaryotic
eukaryotic
type of nutrition
autotrophic
heterotropic
type of metabolism
anaerobic
aerobic
structure similarities
homologous, analogous, vestigial
evolutionary relationships
embryology
genetics
fossil record
How do u classify into kingdoms?
- type of cells
-unicellular, multi cellular
-asexual, sexual
- nutrition
-metabolism
-structure
-evolution relations
Monera Kingdom.....
prokaryotic

Archea- distict ribosomial RNA
Eubacteria- autotrophic or hetertropic, aearobic or anaerobic
Protista
Eukaryotic
typically aquatic
leftover kingdom ( wide variety of characteristics, ancestors of all other eukaryotics, algae and amoebas)
fungi kingdom....
eukaryotic
multicellular (cell walls)
hetertropic
decomposers
sometimes parasites
non-motile
(yeasts,molds, mushrooms)
plantae kingdom...
eukaryotic
multicellular (cellulose cell wall)
photoautotropic
sexual or asexual
mosses, ferns, flowering plants and trees
animalia kingdom...
eukaryotic
multi-cellular
hetertrophic
typically motile and sexual
sponges, works, insects, birds, reptiles, and humans
The phylogeny of humans is...
s-homo sapiens
g- homo
f- hominidae
o- primates
c- mamalia
p- chordata
k- animalia
Charateristics of primates
1. eyes face forward
2. complex brains
3. opposable thumbs
4. flexible shoulder, rotating forelimb
evidence of being related to primates
1. homologous- thumbs, forelimbs, brains, eyes
2. molecular- dna very similar
3. fossil- suggests we evolved from african apes
primary characteristics of a living thing
1. made of cells
2. controlled by dna/rna
3. fueled by metabolism
metabolism
all of the chemical reactions ocuring within the cells of an organism
respirations
chemical process by which an organism obtains ENGERY from food materials in order to maitain life functions
nutrition
all activities that an organism does to get material from the environment and prepares them for use
why do u need nutrition
1. all living things need energy
2. all living things need raw material for growth and repair
wat are the three steps of nutrition?
ingestion- takin in materials
digestion- breaking down materials
egestion- passing of waste (#2)
excretion
removal of waster products that the organism itself has made#1
transport
absoption and distribution of materials within an orgaism (circulating of materials)
synthesis
the process bye which an organism builds large molecules from small molecules

put together or build
growth
using the products of synthesis to increase the cell size/#
reproduction
the production of new individuals
this must occur in order for a species to survive (the individual doesn't need to do this to survive)
regulation
the coordination and control of the activities of an organism and the responses to its environment

respons to stimuli
homeostasis
the condition of a constant internal environment @ all times