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140 Cards in this Set

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Cahokia
A native American trading center in the Mississippi valley near St. Louis. It had a population of 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
Marco Polo
Explorer and trader who developed an overland route to the far east
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese ruler who built a school devoted to exploration. Died in 1486.
Christopher Columbus
Genoan explorer who sailed in service of Ferdinand and Isabella
Queen Isabella
Spanish queen from Castille, married to King Ferdinand of Aragon
Vasco de Balboa
First European to see the Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan
First European to circumnavigate the globe, although he died before his ships returned home
Hernando Cortes
Conquistador who defeated the Aztecs in 1518 with smallpox and lies
Tenochtitlan
Capital city of the Aztecs, on what is now Mexico City, sacked in 1518
Conquistadores
Landless Spanish fighters and explorers who conquered and pillaged Central and South America
Francisco Pizarro
Conquistador who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru (1538)
St. Augustine
Spanish fort in Florida, established in 1565
Santa Fé
Spanish town in New Mexico, founded in 1609. The oldest state capital in the U.S.
Maize
Abundant new world crop, cultivated by the indians
John Cabot
Genoan who explored North America for Henry VII in 1497, looking for the northwest passage.
Mercantilism
Economic theory emphasizing balance of trade and limited resources in the world
Martin Luther
German priest who challenged the Roman Catholic church practices in 1517
John Calvin
Swiss theologian and developer of predestination
Puritan Separatists
Protestants who wanted to split away from Britain
Québec
French colony to the north of New England
Henry Hudson
English navigator who made four voyages looking for the northwest passage. Died in 1911.
New Amsterdam
Old New York, founded in 1624 by the Dutch East India Company
The Spanish Armada
Massive Spanish fleet of Philip II aimed at invading England in 1588
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
Raleigh's half-brother, sailed the Squirrel to colonize Newfoundland in 1583
Sir Walter Raleigh
Adventurer and sometime pirate, founder of Roanoke, died in 1618
Roanoke
Failed colony founded in 1585
Jamestown
First successful English town, founded in 1608
Captain John Smith
Adventurer who led Jamestown
John Rolfe
Married Pocahontas and cultivated tobacco
The Headright System
Grants of land donated to new settlers in the Chesapeake by the Virginia Company and the Lords Baltimore
Virginia House of Burgesses
The first elected government body in the British colonies
Powhatan
Chief of indians near Jamestown and father of Pocahontas
Pocahontas
Daughter of Powhatan, married to John Rolfe
Lord Baltimore
A Catholic British lord who founded Maryland
1649 Act Concerning Religion
Assured freedom of religion in Maryland, in the face of a growing protestant population
Sir William Berkeley
Governor of Virginia who spurred Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon
Led a revolt against Gov. Berkeley, a clash between landed and landless
The Scrooby Separatists
Puritans from England who moved to Holland and then to Plymouth in 1620
Plymouth
Settled by pilgrims in 1620
The Mayflower Compact
first colonial agreement that formed a government by the consent of the governed
William Bradford
Governor of Plymouth colony
The Massachusetts Bay Company
English trading company that evolved into a theocracy, organized in 1628, founded Boston
John Winthrop
Governor of Boston under Mass Bay Co.in 1630
City on a Hill
Winthrop's vision of an idealized example for the old world
Thomas Hooker
Founded Hartford in 1635
Roger Williams
Founder of Rhode Island, an anti-British separatist preacher
Anne Hutchinson
Notable antinomian leader who fled from Boston to Connecticut and then to New York
The Antinomian heresy
The belief that people cannot obtain salvation through good works -- faith alone is all that is required.
The Pequot War
1637 Conflict almost wiping out the Mohegans in Connecticut
King Philip's War
King Philip aka Metacomet was a Wampanoag chieftain who resisted English colonization, fought the English in 1675 for 3 years
Charles I
Beheaded after the english Civil War in 1649
English Civil War
Parliament vs. King Charles
Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protector of England and leader of the victorious protestant faction in the English Civil War
Charles II
Restored King of England, son of Charles I, crowned in 1660
Anthony Ashley Cooper
1st Earl of Shaftesbury and strong parlimentarian involved in civil war and restoration
Barbados
British-controlled islands in the Caribbean, known for exporting sugar and slaves
James II
The Catholic king of England, dethroned in glorious revolution
The Society of Friends
The quakers, a pacifist protestant denomination
William Penn
A quaker convert and founder of Pennsylvania
New Mexico
Most prosperous of all Spanish northern colonies by 1799 it had 10,000 euros
James Oglethorpe
Founded Georgia with the intent of creating a haven for debtors
The Navigation Acts
1660 British acts restricting colonial trade to ships of British origin
Lords of Trade
1675 body created to recommend imperial reform
Dominion of New England
James II's amalgamation of NY, MA etc. under one governor
Sir Edmund Andros
Unpopular royal governor of New England
William and Mary
The protestant power couple brought in to replace the Catholic king of England in 1688
The Glorious Revolution
The bloodless replacement of King James II with William and Mary in 1688
Jacob Leisler
Dutch merchantman who revolted against the British governor of New York
Cavaliers
Supporters of the king
Roundheads
Protestant supporters of parliament
Indentured Servitude
5 years of slavery in exchange for a ticket and some clothing
The Middle Passage
The long journey of slaves from Africa to the new world
Slave Codes
Early 18th c. laws granting white masters absolute authority over black slaves
Huguenots
French protestants (Calvinists) many settling in America after the Edict of Nantes revocation in 1685
Pennsylvania Dutch
German farmers settled in Pennsylvania
Saugus works
First ironworks in the States, a business failure.
Peter Hasenclever
Ran the first successful ironworks in the States, founded in 1764
triangular trade
simplification of rum, slaves, sugar trade network
Stono Rebellion
Failed 1739 slave revolt in South Carolina
Town Meeting
Primary form of local government in New England, held in churches
Primogeniture
First son gets it all
Salem Witch Trials
1692 trials and chaos
Jeremiads
Sermons deploring the drop in piety
Declension
A perceived waning of piety, due in part to migration etc
The Great Awakening
Religious revival reaching its peak in 1740
John and Charles Wesley
Founders of Methodism, visited Georgia in 1730s
Jonathan Edwards
Terrifying Great Awakening preacher from Northampton
New Lights
Great Awakening era Revivalists
Old Lights
Great Awakening era traditionalists
The Enlightenment
Intellectual movement celebrating rational thought and natural laws
Poor Richard's Almanac
America's most famous almanac, written by Ben Franklin
Harvard College
College founded in 1636 Cambridge, MA by Puritans
William and Mary College
College established in 1693 Williamsburg, VA by Anglicans
Royal Society of London
The leading British scientific organization of the enlightenment
Benjamin Franklin
Preminent statesman and enlightenment scientist of America
John Peter Zenger
His 1734 trial in NY ruled that factually true criticisms about government were not libel
The Albany Plan
Ben Franklin proposed a system of general govt to conduct relations with Indians--shot down
Iroquois Confederacy
A strong union of 5 major tribes in the central Northeast (Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida)
Fort Necessity
Geo. Washington's stockade in the Ohio valley, staging ground for Virginian attack on French, the beginning of the French & Indian War
James Wolfe
Captured Quebec (but died there) in a sneak attack of 1759
King George III
Crowned in 1760, assertive and not-too-bright, destablized govt
The Proclamation of 1763
Set Appalachians as a the limit for western expansion
The Currency Act of 1764
Banned colonial assemblies from issuing paper money
Patrick Henry
Pushed the Virginia Resolves
Sons of Liberty
Patriotic Boston thugs
Charles Townshend
Chancellor of exchequer enforced Mutiny Act & established boards of customs
Samuel Adams
Brewer and Patriot and inflammatory writer
Virtual and Actual Representation
Direct rep via vote versus grander idealized version
The Boston Tea Party
Bostonians heaved tea into the harbor to prevent it from being sold
Minutemen
American militia ready to fight on a minute's notice
Seven Years' War
Called the French and Indian War by colonial Americans, it ended in 1763.
The Treaty of Utrecht
Brought Queen Anne's war to a close, transferred land to British
Fort Duquesne
Pittsburgh-located French military fort in Ohio Valley
Quebec
Handed over to English as part of the Peace of Paris
George Grenville
George III's prime minister, believed in enforcing laws in colonies
The Mutiny Act of 1765
Act requiring colonists to help provision and maintain the English armu
The Stamp Act of 1765
Act placing a tax on every colonial printed document
Virginia Resolves
Resolutions asserting the rights of Americans as Englishmen, in response to the Stamp Act
The Sugar Act of 1764
Act that raised duty on sugar, lowered duty on molasses & established vice-admiralty courts in America to try smugglers
Thomas Hutchinson
Governor of Massachusetts, his house was sacked in 1765 by a stamp act mob
Townshend Duties
Duties on lead, paper, paint and tea
Committee of Correspondence
Proposed by Sam Adams to publicize grievances against England (1772)
The Tea Act of 1773
Act giving British East India Co permission to export tea directly to colonies (1773)
The Coercive Acts of 1774
Punitive acts closing Boston harbor, quartering troops, etc. (1774)
General Thomas Gage
British commander of the military in America, also governor of Massachusetts
Creoles
White immigrants of French descent
George Washington
Rookie leader at Fort Necessity
impressment
The forcible enlistment of colonists into the British army, for the 7 years war
Peace of Paris
The 1763 accord ending the 7 years war and giving French territory to England
Pontiac
Ottawa tribal chieftain whose attacks hastened the Proclamation of 1763
The Paxton Boys
Pennsylvania frontiersmen who demanded tax relief and support against the indians
James Otis
Arranged for the intercolonial Stamp Act Congress
Declaratory Act
Act asserting British authority to tax America, in the wake of Stamp Act repeal
Boston Massacre
Hassled soldiers shoot and kill 5 Bostonians
Gaspée
British revenue schooner boarded and sunk by Rhode Island colonists
Daughters of Liberty
Sewing circles to augment now-scarce finished goods
1st Continental Congress
Delegates from all colonies (except Georgia) convened in Philadelphia to address the Intolerable Acts in September of 1774
Lexington and Concord
Immediate trigger that started the War of Independence
Paul Revere
Boston silversmith with a famous horseride, who was also created inflammatory political illustrations
William Dawes
A Son of Liberty who rode with Revere to warn Lexington and Concord