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63 Cards in this Set

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What are 3 ester local anesthetics
i) cocaine: directly causes vasoconstriction
ii) procaine: metabolized to PABA
iii) tetracaine: long acting (slow metabolism)
What are 3 amide local anesthetics
i) lidocaine: metabolized in liver to metabolites that have limited local anesthetic action
ii) bupivacaine: blocks conduction in sensory nerves more effectively than motor fibers
iii) mepivacaine: similar to lidocaine
Which type of local anesthetic is metabalized by the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum associated enzymes
Amide type
In general how do local anesthetics work
the site of action is at the site inside the Na channel that spans the cell membrane of nervous tissue. They block conduction by decreasing or preventing the large transient increase in the permeability of excitable membranes to Na. Eventually an AP fails to propagate and nerve conduction ceases
What is the effect of hydrophobicity on the potency and duration of action of a local anesthetic
Increased hydrophobicity increases the potency and the duration of action of local anesthetics
What purpose does the ionized form of a local anesthetic serve
ionized form is needed to enter the Na channel
What purpose does the unionized form of a local anesthetic serve
non-ionized form is needed to diffuse into tissues
List the order of nerve fiber block and recovery following perineural local anesthetic administration:
pain- cold- warmth- touch- deep pressure- motor fxn (return is opposite)
Why is bupivicaine not given IV
cardiotoxic- ventricular arrhythmias and poor myocardial contractility. Enhanced myocardial toxicity may be due to the slower dissociation from the site of action in the sodium channel.
What advantage does cocaine have for use in "nasal surgery"
Cocaine is a vasoconstrictor so bleeding is reduced
How are ester-type local anesthetics metabolized
hydrolyzed by esterases that cleave the ester bond found in the plasma and liver. Metabolism is often independent of liver function
What is the number of unsuccessful drug developments for 1 succesful drug?
A)1000
B)5000
C)10000
D)20000
D)20000
What Upton Sinclair novel was about the meat packing industry?
The Jungle
The FDA falls under what government agency
Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare
A prescription must have what information
a) VETERINARIAN'S NAME, ADDRESS, TELEPHONE #, LICENSE #
AND DEA # IF APPLICABLE.
b) NAME AND ADDRESS OF CLIENT
c) SPECIES
d) NAME OF MEDICATION AND QUANTITY
e) DIRECTIONS FOR USE (Do Not Use - SID)
f) CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS (AND IF APPLICABLE - WITHDRAWAL
TIMES)
g) NUMBER OF REFILLS
h) SIGNATURE OF PRESCRIBER
The label of a dispensed drug must have what information
a) NAME, ADDRESS AND TELEPHONE # OF VET/CLINIC
b) IDENTIFICATION OF ANIMAL (CLIENT NAME/ANIMAL ID)
c) DATE OF DISPENSING MEDICATION
d) NAME OF DRUG AND QUANTITY DISPENSED
e) DIRECTIONS FOR USE
f) REFILLS AUTHORIZED
g) CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS IF NEEDED
h) INITIALS OF VET FILLING RX
i) FEDERAL TRANSFER STICKER FOR CONTROLLED MEDS
j) EXPIRATION DATE (?
How often must one take an inventory of cotrolled substances
Every 2 years
(lets see a bag of weed, 12 tabs of X, 3 grams of coke, and some misc uppers and downers)
What is the proper DEA Registration classification for veterinarians
Practitioner
What sets Schedule 1 drugs apart from the other classes of drugs
THE DRUG OR SUBSTANCE HAS NO CURRENTLY ACCEPTED MEDICAL USE IN
TREATMENT IN THE USA.
THERE IS A LACK OF ACCEPTED SAFETY FOR USE OF THE DRUG OR OTHER SUBSTANCE UNDER MEDICAL SUPERVISION.
T/F Eye position within the socket is reliable as a measure of hydration status
True
What are some crystalloid isosomotic solutions
isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl), isotonic sodium bicarbonate (1.3% solution), lactated Ringer’s, acetated Ringer’s, Ringer’s, Isotonic KCl (1.15% solution), 5% dextrose, 2.5% dextrose and 0.45% or 0.9% saline, Tromethamine, and Carbicarb
_____________ are excellent at rapid but transient plasma volume expansion (Crystalloid/Colloid)
Crystalloid
______________ would be more effective at reducing edema from hypoalbunemia
(Crystalloid/Colloid)
Colloid
This agent may be advantageous over NaHCO3 in treating animals with mixed metabolic and respiratory acidosis because HCO3- is not produced. It is also often used in laboratories as a buffer.
Tromethamine (Tris buffer)
1 mole of dextrose(C6H12O6) provides how many equivalents when dissolved in water
produces 0 equivalents because
dextrose does not dissociate into charged compounds
1 mole of CaCl2 provides how many equivalents
1 mole of CaCl2 provides 4 Eq = 2 equivalents of Ca and 2 equivalents of Cl
Clinical evaluation of tissue blood flow should take into account what 5 factors
activity level
heart rate
mucous membrane color
capillary refill time
temperature of extremities (ears, feet)
Why is acetated Ringer's a better alkalinizing agent than Lactated Ringers
Acetated Ringer’s is better than LRS because more tissues are able to utilize acetate than L-lactate
What is the maximal infusion rate for Isotonic crystalloid solutions
80 ml/kg/hr
What is the maximal infusion rate for colloidal solutions
20 ml/kg/hr
What is the maximal infusion rate for Hyperosmotic solutions
1 ml/kg/min
What is the maximum infusion rate for K+ administration
No faster than 0.5 mEq K+/kg/hr.
What are some signs of fluid overload
Pulmonary edema, Tachypnea, dyspnea, moist cough, increased mean central venous pressure.
Define osmolality
"number of dissolved particles per kilogram of water" = measured
normal value in domestic animals is approximately 285 mOsm/kg
Define osmolarity
"number of dissolved particles per liter of water" = calculated
Plasma water = 306 mOsm/L
What are 4 non alkalinizing agents
Ringer’s, Isotonic KCl (1.15% solution), 5% dextrose, 2.5% dextrose & 0.45% saline or 0.9% saline (NaCl)
When giving multiple topical opthalmic medications in what order should they be administered
give drops first, then oily drops and then
ointments. As always, wait at least 5 minutes between different medications in the same eye.
Why are chloramphenicol and alkaloids ideal for topical opthalmic use
They have the ability to exist in equilibrium in solution as
ionized (water soluble; polar) and unionized (lipid soluble; nonpolar)
What are the maximum subconjunctival volumes that should be administered to a cat-dog? In a horse-cow?
Volumes should not exceed 0.25 ml in cats and dogs and 1.0 ml in horses and cows per site.
What are the 7 routes of administration for opthalmic disorders
1. Topical - most common route of administration
2. Subconjunctival (bulbar conjunctiva).
3. Retrobulbar.
4. Intravitreal.
5. Systemic - P.O., I.V., I.M.
6. Subpalpebral or nasolacrimal lavage.
7. Hydrophilic contact lens.
What is a major contraindication to the use of miotics
Be careful using any miotic in the presence of ongoing
uveitis as a small pupil is more likely to develop a synechia.
T/F The Prostaglandin analogs (Latanaprost and Travaprost) are not used for their miotic activity alone
True, they are most often used in glaucoma therapy
Why should Atropine be used cautiously in young animals
chronic cycloplegia (Paralyzation ciliary musculature to decrease pain)can damage the developing drainage angle. May also be the cause of secondary glaucoma in adults
What is the MOA for avermectins
bind w/ high affinity to a glutamate-gated channel
-cause flaccid paralysis and death
What organisms are avermectins effective against
nematodes and arthropods
What is the MOA for bezimidazoles
inhibit fumarate reductase, blocking mitochondrial fcn and deprives the parasite of energy, leading to death
What organisms are Albendazole effective against in cattle
nematodes and flukes
What organisms are Fenbendazole effective against
GIARDIA AND WHIPS
What is the MOA for Imidazothiazoles
-nicotinic agonist disturbing the neuromuscular system
-causes contraction and SPASTIC paralysis
What organisms are imidazothiazoles effective against
GI nematodes and lungworms
What is the MOA for Tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel, morantel
nicotinic agonist disturbing the neuromuscular system
-causes contraction and SPASTIC paralysis
What organisms are Tetrahydropyrimidines effective against
roundworms, hookworms
 effective against tapeworms at high doses
 when fed continuously prevents migration of Ascaris suum (roundworms) in swine
What is the MOA for piperazines
-produce neuromuscular blockage through disruption of GABA neurotransmission → FLACCID paralysis
-narrow spectrum
What is the MOA of organophosphate
-phosphorylates the acetylcholinesterase enzyme
-results in continued depolarization
What is the MOA of isoquinolones
(praziquantel)
attacks neuromuscular junction and tegument producing paralysis and tegumental destruction
What organisms is praziquantel effective against
Tapeworms
What organisms are arsenicals effective against
Dirrofilaria immitis
x
x
What are the signs of toxicity of ionophores
Alters muscle membrane permiability
Muscle weakness
Pain
Tremors
Reluctance to stand
What are some other benefits of ionophores
Reproduction
– Increased ovarian size
– More ovulation sites
Face fly control
What are the effects of ionophores on growth
Feed efficiency
– Grain diets
– Decreased feed intake
– Minimal effect on rate of gain
– Increased by 0.1 kg/head/day
What do ionophores do
Altered VFA production
Decreased methane production
Decreased ruminal protein degradation
x
x