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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the lenght and shape of the trachea
12cm
horshoe
What is the normal thickness of the trachea
less than 3mm
What are the findings of relapsing polychondritis
-diffuse thickening of the trachea wall sparing the posterior membrane
- collapse of the trachea during expiration
What is the clinical course and treatment of these pts?
recurrent pna
and they get a stent
What are other cartilage that may be affect by this disease
the nose is flat
iflammation of the pinna of the ears
What happens to patients with post intubation stenosis
A pt with stridor, and circumferential narrowing of the trachea that is focal and subglottic
What is the differential diagnosis of focal circumferential stenosis
post intubation steonsis
wegners
infection (tb and fungal)
sarcoid
IBD
What types of infections may cause focal circumferential thickening of the trachea
tb and other fungals
What percent of pt with sarcoid tend to have disease that affects the trachea
1-3%
Is tracheal involvement in IBD typical
no, rare and typical late phase
Which 2 causes of circumferential stenosis of the trachea involve the subglottic region
post intubation stenosis
wegners
Is wegners always focal
no, can be a focal area or a long segment of concentric thickening of the tracheal wall
What percent of pts with wegners will have airway involvement
50%
What % of pt with wegners will have trachea as the sole area of involvement
2%, these patients usually have other manifestations as well
Does wegners calcify?
no
Which has associated malacia; post intubation stenosis or wegners
post -intubation stenosis and airway can collapse on expiration (wegners has none)
What is the ddx for a nodular trachea
4
tracheobrochopathia-osteochondroplastica (TO)
tracheobronchial amylodosis
papillomatosis
mets
What is the most common location of papillomatosis
upper larynx
What is the causes of TO
idiopathic
Is TO benign or malignant
benign
How common is TO
very rare
What is the pathophysiology of TO
development of cartilaginous and osseous nodules within the submucosa of the tracheal and bronchial walls
What demographic does TO tend to affect
older men
How is TO similar to wegners
no associated malacia
Does TO effect the posterior membrane
no
Does relapsing polychondritis have Calcium
no
Does relapsing polychondritis have malacia
yes
What are the characteristis of the lesions that affect the trachea in amyloidosis
Calcium is present
circumferential or not
focal or long
Can affect the posterior membrane
What are two nodular diseases that affect the trachea
TO and amyloid
What are two diseases which have calcium and affect the trachea
TO and amyloid
How do you differentiate between amyloid and TO
Amyloid effects the posterior membrane while TO does not
What is a circumferential disease (not really) that spares the posterior membrane
relapsing polychondritis
What are the circumferential diseases of the trachea
post intubation, wegners, infection, sarcoid, IBD
What is the causes of long segment narrowing of the trachea on frontal and increased A-P diameter on the lateral plain film
Saber sheath trachea
What is the cause of a saber sheath trachea
increased intrathoracic pressure (COPD
Can focal airway stenosis be caused by TB
yes
What percent of pt with wegners are CANCA positive
90%
What part of the airway does sarcoid tend to effect
upper
What part of the airway does IBD tend to affect
subglottic
Does TO have calcification
yes
What is another name for tracheobronchomegaly
munier kuhn disease
What is the cut off for considering something tracheomegally
greater than 3cm
What is the cause of tracheobronchomegaly
atrophy of cartilage and connective tissue of airway wall
What is the ddx for mounier-kuhns (tracheobronchomegaly) disease
fibrosis of the lung (which will be tenting out the trachea)
What % of tracheal masses are malignant
90
What is the MC tracheal malignancy
SCC
What is the second most common tracheal malignancy
adenoid cystic
What is the typical location of a adenoid cystic carcinoma
a large or small posterior membrane mass
Can an adenoid cystic carcinoma be circumferential
yes
Where does a mucoepidermoid carcinoma and carcinoid tend to occur
the proximal airay (after bifurcation of carina)
Does a mucoepidermoid carcinoma metastasize
rarely
What percent of mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain calcium
50%
Does a carcionoid tumor densely enhance on CT
yes
What are 5 causes of primary malignancy of the trachea
SCC
adenoid cystic carcinoma
mucoepidermoid carcinoma
sarcoma
adenocarcinoma
What is the mc mass of the trachea
mets
Are carcinoids usually circumscribe masses
yes, circumscribed (round), enhancing, and proximal airway
What is the tip of the iceberg sign
in carnoid part of the tumor may be inside the lumen of the proximal airway but the majority is outside
Are carcinoids vascular
yes, biopsy with caution
What are 2 causes of proximal airway neoplasms
mucoepidermoid and carcinoid
What test may give you a false postitive with carcinoid
PET
Can a carcoid tumor and mucoepidermoid carcinoma both have calcium
yes
What can a mass obstruction a proximal airway lead to
bronchiectasis