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96 Cards in this Set

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The α subunit can bind GDP or GTP. When GDP is bound to α subunit, the G protein is _____. When GTP is bound, the G protein is ______
- inactive.

-active.
G-protein coupled receptors aka?
Seven-transmembrane domain receptors
Growth factor receptors, including those for insulin, IGF and EGF, possess ______ kinase activity. Ligand binding results to activation of _____ kinase, and
_________.
-tyrosine kinase

-tyrosine kinase

-autophosphorylation
Cytokine receptors second messenger?
JAK2

tyrosine kinase
Ligand-regulated transporters aka?

example?
-Guanylyl cyclase receptor
Guanylyl cyclase receptor
increased NO and vasodilation/relaxation
Nuclear receptors use ?
steroids and thyroid hormones
cell surface receptor hormones can circulate ________ and nuclear receptors can circulate _______
-freely

-with a carrier
Hypothalamus is connected to the anterior pituitary via?

posterior pituitary?
-anterior = blood vessels

-posterior = nerves
Stimulates ACTH?
CRH
TRH stimulates?
Thyroid hormones and prolactin
What prevents prolactin?
dopamine
What prevents GH?
somatostatin
ACTH?
under control of CRH* -> function is to stimulate the 3 adrenal cortex hormones
FSH in females?
concentration increases in first two weeks of menstrual cycle b/c it is required for the development of folicle

development of folicle = development of ovum (located in folice)
LH in females?
level increases in mid cycle (day 13-15) bc LH helps in the last steps of folicular development -> required for the rupture of the folicle, elimination of the ovum from the folicle, and movement of ovum from ovary to the fallopian tube -> in general LH is important for elimination
FSH in males?
has receptor in testis -> controls spermatogenesis (development of mature sperm from germ cells)
Deficient FSH = infertility
LH in males
has receptor on cell membranes (leydig cell) located in testis  stimulates testosterone secretion from leydig cells
Function of prolactin in females?
level increases during pregnancy because it prepares the mammary glands for production of milk during breast feeding; increase also suppresses secretion of FSH and LH -> prevents 2nd pregnancy during pregnancy
prolactin pathology
increase in non-pregnant females = infertility
Function of prolactin in males?
behavior hormone; important for contacts.
excess prolactin in males?
suppresses FSH = abnormal sperm

suppresses LH = low testosterone
oxytocin in females
has receptor on myometrium of uterus that causes the contraction of myometrium during delivery. Also has receptor on myoepithelial cell of mamary gland and causes ejection of milk during breast feeding
oxytocin in males
important for ejaculation and causes vasoconstriction of smooth muscle blood vessels of penis
adrenal cortext
Glumeruloasa = ?
fasciculata
Glumeruloasa = outter cortext
fasciculata
Zona glomerulosa: produces ?
mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
Zona fasciculata: produces ?
mostly glucocorticoids (cortisol)
Zona reticulata: produces ?
sex hormones (mostly androgens, dehydroepiandro-sterone and androstenedione)
aldosterone
Is under tonic control by ACTH, but is separately regulated by the
renin-angiotensin system and the potassium.
Conn’s disease
tumor of zone glumerlosa of adrenal cortex = oversecretion of aldosterone = HTN, hypernatremia, hypokalemia
effect of mineralocorticoids
increase renal H+ secretion (action on the intercalated cells of the late distal tubule and collecting duct).
Actions of Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
-Stimulation of gluconeogenesis
addinsons?

effects of addinsons?
adrenocortical insufficiency

hypotensive, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia; hypoglycemia (cortisol); impared immune function; hair loss due to androgen deficiency; hyperpigmentation of face/lips/palms/nails
primary addinsons?

secondary?
primary = adrenal gland

secondary = ACTH or CRH
Cushing’s syndrome
Adrenocortical excess
Cushings?

effects?
oversecretion of aldosterone, cortisone, androgen
HTN, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, cortisol stimulates the appetite and the pt has accumulation of fat in abd cavity and shoulder area and posterior region of neck. Cortisol alterates the collagen – skin has lines in it; Cortisol = breaking down of proteins = thinner upper and lower limbs = atrophy Female has hair on face

moon face
Difference between Cushings and Conn's?
Cushings is all 3 cortical hormones. Conn's is aldosterone
Thyroid hormone:

___ is more active

___ can cross the placenta
T3 is more active

T4 can cross placental membrane during pregnancy but it is converted to T3
_________ has receptor for TSH -> When tsh binds receptor it activates the production of T3/T4
Folicular cell
Oxidation of I- to I2 Is catalyzed by a _______ enzyme in the follicular cell membrane
peroxidase
DIT + DIT =
T4
MIT + DIT
T3
TRH
secreted by the hypothalamus and stimulates the secretion of TSH by the anterior pituitary.
TSH
increases both synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones by the follicular cells via an adenylate cyclase- cAMP mechanism.
Chronic elevation of TSH causes
hypertrophy of the thyroid gland
____ down-regulates TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary and thereby inhibits TSH secretion.
T3
Thyroid hormones stimulate heart via?

Increase BP via?
B1 receptors

A1 receptors
metabolic effect of thyroid hormone?
a. Increases glucose absorption from the gastrointestinal tract
b. Increase glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose oxidation
c. Increases lipolysis
d. Increases protein synthesis and degradation. The overall effect is catabolic.
Deficiency of T3/T4 = ?
memory disorder and learning disorder, cold/temperature regulation, weight gain, hypotension, speech disorder, sleep disorder
Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism?
nervousness/anxiety, htn(adrenergic), increased CO, palpitations, sleep disorder, high metabolism (weight loss), feel extremely hot
thyroditis

common type?
hypothyroidism

Hashimoto's thyroiditis – autoimmune -> hypothyroidism
Two glands not controlled by CNS?

Controlled by?
parathyroid - blood calcium

pancreas - BGL
PTH in small intestine?
binding of PTH to receptor causes increase in calcium reabsorption by small intestine capilary
PTH in distal tubule of nephron?
binding causes reabsorption of calcium by peritubular capilary of DT
PTH has receptor in bone?
binding causes the removal of ca from bone and releases it into blood stream
most important effect of PTH?
converts the precursor of vitamin D into active form of vitamin D
precursor to vitamin D = ?

pth converts it into __________ = active form
-25 hydroxy colicalciferol

-1.25 dehydroxy colicalciferol
PTH ________ phosphate reabsorption at proximal tubule
prevents -> phosphate is excreted
What stimulates PTH secretion?
Decreased calcium

mild decrease in magnesium
Effect of severe decrease in Mg?
- inhibits PTH secretion and produce
symptoms of hypoparathyroidism
The second messenger for PTH secretion is ?
cAMP
hypoparathyroidism?
results in hypocalcemia
results of hypocalcemia from hypoparathyroidism?
Alterates action potential – especially SA node
Alterates neuromuscular junction
Alterates the synapse and release of NT and activation of next neuron
Alterates bone development
Tetany – not exactly the same as tetanus  or tetany seizure is a medical sign consisting of the involuntary contraction of muscles; spasms and then weakness
Vitamin D deficiency?
Role of vitamin D = reabsorption of calcium by the bone -> deficiency = weak bones
Hyperparathyroidism?
Hypercalcemia
Overstimulation/excitation of SA node = extrasystole
Htn
located in the outer rim of islet of langerhans

secrete?
alpha cells

glucagon
located in the central part of the islet
beta cells

insulin
are intermixed in the islet of langerhans and secrete _______ and ________.
-delta cells

-somatostatin

-gastrin
There are ________ which link beta cells to each other, alpha cells to each other and beta cells to alpha cells for rapid communication.
gap junctions
The 2nd messenger system for glucagon is
cAMP
glucagon increases? (4 things)
glycogenolysis
gluconeogensis
fatty/keto acid concentration
urea production
insulin actions?
insulin increases glucose uptake
When glucose enters beta cells it causes?
activates GLUT2 -> GLUT2 inserts into membrane and glucose continue to enter -> K+ channels close and K+ remains inside cell -> calcium channels are activated and calcium enters beta cell -> high concentration of calcium causes stimulation of secretory vesicles full of insulin -> exocytosis + release of insulin
insulin binds to target cell receptor and causes
insertion of GLUT4 into target cell membrane -> GLUT4 then allows glucose to pass through channels
Diabetes 1
Autoimmune disease -> destruction of Beta cells in the pancreas -> leads to deficiency of insulin production -> low blood insulin = glucose cant enter target cell and remains in blood = hyperglycemia
Insulin effect on K+ concentration?
insulin decreases blood K+ concentration, increases K+ uptake into cells, which decreases blood K+ concentration.
DM 1 treatment?
insulin
DM type 2?
Possibly due to genetic disorder -> alteration/mutation to insulin receptor -> the receptor becomes resistant to insulin
DM 2 treatment
exercise, diet, metformin
Treatment for gigantism?
somatostatin
The precursor to melatonin is
serotonin
Within the _______, serotonin is acetylated and then methylated to yield _______
-pineal gland

-melatonin
non-pregnant females do not have this hormone; hormone is important for positive sign of pregnancy (urinalysis);
Hormone controls the corpus luteum which produces progesterone. Progesterone maintains the endometrium for the pregnancy
HCG – non-pregnant females do not have this hormone; hormone is important for positive sign of pregnancy (urinalysis);
Hormone controls the corpus luteum which produces progesterone. Progesterone maintains the endometrium for the pregnancy
Relaxin ?
Relaxin – during delivery relaxin relaxes the cervix and joints of pelvic cavity for delivery
When is progesterone produced by placenta
after the first trimester of pregnancy
Estrogen?
maintains endometrium, important for proliferation of cell proliferation after menstruation; responsible for secondary sex characteristics
Prostaglandins are derived from a chemical called
arachidonic acid
The arachidonic acid is converted by the enzyme _________ into a prostaglandin
cyclooxygenase
Arachidonic acid is converted by the enzyme _______ into ________ which are largely responsible for the symptoms of asthma.
lipoxygenase into leukotrienes
mechanism of hyperpigmentation in addinsons?
decreased cortical hormones causes feedback to increase ACTH, CRH, and POMC -> POMC is precursor to alpha-melanocyte = hyperpigmentation
POMC is precursor to?
alpha-melanocyte
enkephalin
ACTH
MSH
Glucose enters beta cell of pancreas:

what happens to K+?
what happens to Ca2+?
K+ channels close - can't leave

Ca++ channels open - rushes in
Fever mechanism:
Bacteria activates ?
Interleukin 1 and 2
Fever mechanism:
Interleukin 1 and 2 stimulate?
cyclooxygenase
Fever mechanism:
cyclooxygenase converts?
arachidonic acid to PGE2
Fever mechanism:
PGE2 ?
PGE2 irritates temperature center of the hypothalamus = fever