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58 Cards in this Set

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What is meant by SOCIALIZATION?
The process by which a child learns to become an active and competent member of their community.
What is meant by the term 'social practices'?
Activities shaped by cultural beliefs and values, such as,
disciplining children, teaching them tasks, preparing for gendered adult roles
Study Guide 2 p. 8
LAISSEZ-FAIRE - Romantic
CLAY MOULDING - Blank slate
CONFLICT - Puritan
MUTUALITY - Small people
Psychologist RUDOLPH SCHAFFER
4 models of child rearing practices
p. 11
LAISSEZ-FAIRE
Concept of child - preformed
Parental practice - leave alone
p. 11
CLAY MOULDING
Concept of child - passive
Parental practice - Shaping & training
p. 11
CONFLICT
Concept of child - anti-social
Parental practice - Discipline
p. 11
MUTUALITY
Concept of child - participant
Parental practice - Sensitivity & responsiveness
p. 11
Child rearing & SOCIALIZATION THEORY
Child rearing practices will affect how a child is treated. Practices are shaped by discourses about children i.e. blank slate/requiring strong discipline
p. 17
How does socialization happen?
Through learning about EMOTIONS e.g. Utku community, N Canada - adults do not express anger

Through LANGUAGE & GUIDED PARTICIPATION e.g. helping children to become competent in tasks; (Link ROGOFF & VYGOTSKY)

Through COMMUNITY PRACTICES e.g. Children's work roles become more complex as they become more physically able - SAM PUNCH - Rural community in Bolivia

Through CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES e.g. school - experiences structured by curriculum / work develops identity
p.18
In what ways to children play an active role in their own socialization?
Children develop sense of own identity. Choose own activities and relationships. May resist actions of adults around them. e.g. BILKIS expresses autonomy - making own choices; CATHY chooses to educate younger children, does not agree with fathers low aspirations for her.

They explore, question and resist socialization.
p. 8
What kinds of change & discontinuity might children have to cope with in the course of their socialization?
Discontinuity between home to school e.g. language, culture differences

Being treated differently due to race, gender & social class e.g parents/teacher have differing views of same child
p.30
What is a family, and who is included in a family?
Family very flexible concept which differs across cultures and across time (socially constructed).
Familes come in a variety of forms e.g step, single parent, gay..
'a group of persons directly linked by kin connections, the adult members of which assume responsibility for caring for children'
Sociologist ANTHONY GIDDENS defines family as...
How does time & place affect ideas about what a family is, or should be?
Ideas of family are socially constructed i.e. they differ across cultures and change over time e.g NUER - emphasise social links not biological ones. Traditionally European kinship emphasizes biological links.

ASSISTED CONCEPTION - profound affect on family formation - re-emphasizes biology as marker of kinship.

Ideas about family are often full of IDEALIZATION.
p. 46
How do children take an active role in shaping the dynamics of the family?
By claiming or rejecting kin e.g Sophie also considers lesbian mothers partner as her mother.
Foster carers - substitute family
Institutional care - may provide stability or cause insecurity & distress.
What happens to children without a family to care for them?
HOW has child labour been restricted in Britain during the past 200 years?
1874 - Factory Act raises minimum working age to 9. Children up to 14 to work 1/2 days.
See Timeline page 112
WHY has child labour been restricted in Britain?
Changing attitudes
- cultural aversion to children working.
- high value placed on childhood - 'Romantic discourse'
- education seen as child's 'work'.
1880 Education Act - Compulsory for children between 5-10 years.

Introduction was gradual - some parents were opposed. Attendance officers persuaded parents to allow their children to attend school. Until 1916 parents prosecuted for non-attendance of their children.
HOW has compulsory schooling been introduced in past 200 years?
p. 97
Growing concern that many children were not receiving an education.
WHY has compulsory schooling been introduced in past 200 years?
WHEN was the Compulsory School leaving age raised to 14 and then 16?
1918 Education Act - School leaving age of 14 enforced
1973 Education Act - School leaving age of 16 enforced
Worked in agriculture, factories, textile mills & mines.
What part did children play in the British economy BEFORE industrialisation?
Worked on margins of industrial economy e.g servants, street sellers, van-boys.
What part did children play in the British economy AFTER industrialisation?
How has the concept of childhood changed in the last 200 years?
Schooling has replaced work as the child's primary obligation.

Childhood became seen as a time when children should be free from responsibilities (Romantic discourse, encouraged by poets such as Blake & Wordsworth)
p. 110
How many children are there in the world & what proportion do not attend school?
Oxfam estimate 625 million primary school age (6-11)

1/5th - 125 million DO NOT attend school
p. 137
In what ways does the schooling experience vary around the world?
- In developing world schools often outdoors or in dilapidated buildings
- proportion of children who enter varies from country to country & within regions
- ratios of girls / boys (generally more boys attend school)
- Schooling greater quality in the North
p. 139
MANIFEST & LATENT FUNCTIONS
Which terms were introduced by sociologist ROBERT K MERTON (1957) to define the 2 main SOCIAL FUNCTIONS of schooling?
p. 142
Define the term MANIFEST FUNCTION of schooling
Obvious - what people usually think of as the purpose of education
p. 142
Define the term LATENT FUNCTION of schooling
Hidden - effects are important but not intended & may not be recognised. Sometimes latent functions act against manifest ones.
p. 142
Examples of MANIFEST FUNCTIONS of schooling
- gaining knowledge & skills
- fosters religious beliefs & sense of community
- identifies & encourages talents
p. 143
Examples of LATENT FUNCTIONS of schooling
- Catagorises pupils based on merit (ie. rigorous testing)& directing them to future employment e.g working class boys manufacturing industry (Willis)
- allows adults to work
- interpreting school as a childs 'work' (QVORTRUP)
p. 148
RONALD DORE
THE DIPLOMA DISEASE (1976 & 1997)
Who argued that the testing and qualification function displacing the teaching & learning function - especially in South (e.g. JAPAN)?
p. 149
What did RONALD DORE argue?
- Teaching is geared to final exam
- Pupils pursue higher qualifications than are actually needed for job due to increased competition from people with a suitable qualification.
p. 150
Who researched working-class boys disaffection with school?
PAUL WILLIS - LEARNING TO LABOUR (1977)
p. 156
- Found a counter culture of resistance to school
- Lads see their future in manual work due to parents expectations & lads counter-culture.
- LATENT FUNCTION of schools is to direct them to unskilled work
What did PAUL WILLIS argue based on his ETHNOGRAPHIC study?
p. 161
Arguments against PAUL WILLIS view
- Lack of qualifications mean lads only option is to take unskilled work
p. 161
What is meant by children's 'work'?
- Paid employment or money-making tasks inside or outside the home
- Unpaid home maintenance / childcare, for at least 10 hours a week (BOYDEN et al)
p. 177
Can only estimate due to different ways governments define work. International Labour Organisation (ILO) ESTIMATE 250 MILLION
What proportion of children work in the world today?
p. 177
- Unpaid help to families, mostly in agriculture
- Domestic child workers & baby-minders (mostly girls)
- 'Informal sector' - shops & stores, street-selling
- 'Formal sector' modern, large factories, making goods to export abroad
What kinds of work do they do?
p. 178
How does this vary between different parts of the world?
SOUTH - vast majority agriculture or domestic workers
NORTH - typically service sector, part-time & poorly paid (e.g paper round, fast-food shops)
p. 180
What are the main benefits of children's work?
- Provides family with an income
- Unpaid work contributes to family economy
- Children find enjoyment and fulfilment in their work
(Martin WOODHEAD - Video 2, Band 4)

p. 198
- Constructed a model of an 'idealized child' based on their own countries. This model sees childhood as a time of care, learning & play at least until adolescence.
Pschologists beginning to study child development within diverse contexts, including work (WOODHEAD, 1999)
What did MARTIN WOODHEAD argue that developmental psychologists in America & Europe have done?
p. 192
What are the main drawbacks of child work?
- Children's work is 'unnatural' (Romantic discourse)
- Work interferes with development : damage health / robbed of childhood
- Can be dangerous
- Interferes with schooling
- Maybe mistreated
p. 193-4
What are the origins of early education in relation to school systems?
Friedrich FROEBEL - set up first kindergarten, Germany 1847
Margaret McMILLAN - Early Childhood project/nursery, London 1914
Maria MONTESSORI - slum nursery, Rome 1907
p. 224
In what ways is early childhood education seen by governments as an investment?
1964 - American Head Start programme.
1999 - UK Surestart Programme.

Both aim to break cycle of disadvantage by promoting the development of babies & young children.
p. 227
- Goal lead curriculum - set of steps
- 'Leading into school type' curriculum model (Angela Anning)
What is the emphasis of the FOUNDATION STAGE CURRICULUM (England)?
p. 236
- envisaged as woven mat 'supporting' child in their early development - flexible developmental sequence
-'Spider web' curriculum model
What is the emphasis of TE WHARIKI CURRICULUM (NZ) ?
p. 241
- No curriculum framework
- Collaborative approach - children, parents & pedagogues (teachers)
What is the emphasis of REGGIO EMILIA APPROACH (region of Northern Italy) ?
p 243
What are RITES OF PASSAGE
RITUALS marking the transition from one status or life stage to another
(Studied by VAN GENNEP 1909)
p. 270
Give examples of Rites of Passage in the South
Sub-Saharan Africa
XHOSA male circumcision TANZANIA female circumcision
p. 276
Video 2 Band 5, Theobale
Give examples of traditional ceremonies that mark the transition to adulthood in the North
QUINCEANERA - e.g Karen's cousin
18th/21st BIRTHDAY PARTIES
BAR MITZVAH
DEBUTANTE BALL
Video 2 Band 5, Quinceanera
Social change (lack of certainty re. employment/unstable families) has led to young people becoming self-centred, detached from families & taking risks (e.g fast cars/teenage pregnancy)
What is ULRICH BECK's THEORY OF INDIVIDUALIZATION?
P. 277
ARGUMENTS AGAINST Beck's theory
Beck overstated affects of social change
Young people still influenced and depend on family for support.
Social class, gender & ethnicity structure young people's lives.
p. 277
During PUBERTY physical changes take place & IDENTITY is formed, which results in an individual but one who can live by societies rules
What is ERIK ERIKSON's THEORY (1968) on the transition to adulthood in the WEST?
p. 276
ARGUMENTS AGAINST Erikson's Theory
Not everyone becomes an 'unitary individual subject' i.e totally independent - this is an 'ideal type'

Adults are frequently interdependent on support of family.
Some children support adults e.g 10 year old Shaun caring for mother

Challenges idea that adulthood is a time of independence.
p. 281
What factors influence the transition from school to work (& adult independence)?
Social class - directed to low paid jobs
Dis/ability - may still be relient on family, discriminated against when looking for work
Gender - enter traditionally male/female jobs
Ethic background/Religious beliefs - discriminated against, family place restrictions
p. 289
UK - carry on as normal
Waiwai (Amazonian tribe)- menstruation huts - girls secluded for 2 months & then emerges to be given white beads as a sign of maturity
Give examples of how physical changes at puberty are dealt with across different cultures
p. 292
Give examples of when young people may 'feel' like an adult
- when they have a boy/girl friend
- when they start to be sexually active
- realising & acknowledging to others that they are gay
p. 296