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66 Cards in this Set

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Accommodation
according to Piaget, changing existing knowledge based on new knowledge
Animism
crediting inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties such as feelings
Assimilation
according to Piaget, taking in information that is compatible with what one already knows
Babbling
speech like sounds that consist of vowel-consonant combinations
Cardinality principle
counting principle that the last number name denotes the number of objects being counted
Cooing
early vowel-like sounds that babies produce
Egocentrism
difficulty in seeing the world from another’s point of view; typical of children in the preoperational period
Equilibration
according to Piaget, a process by which children reorganize their schemes to return to a state of equilibrium when disequilibrium occurs
Expressive style
language-learning style that describes children whose vocabularies include many social phrases that are used like one word
Fast mapping
fact that children make connections between new words and references and referents so quickly that they can’t be considering all possible meanings
Infant-directed speech
way of speaking in which adults speak slowly and with exaggerated changes in pitch and loudness
Intonation
pattern of rising and falling pitch that appears around the age of seven months in infants babbling
Operant conditioning
view of learning, proposed by BF Skinner, which emphasizes reward and punishment
Overextension
when children define words more broadly than adults do
Over-regularization
grammatical usage that results from applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule
Phonemes
unique speech sounds that can be used to create words
Primary circular reaction
according to Piaget, when infants accidentally produce pleasant events that are centered on the body and then try to re-create the events
Private speech
comments that are not intended for others but serve the purpose of helping children regulate their behavior
Referential style
language-learning style that describes children whose vocabulary is dominated by names of objects, persons, or actions
Scheme
according to Piaget, a mental structure that organizes information and regulates behavior
In Piaget’s theory, psychological structures that organize experience are called ….
Schemes
According to Piaget, intellectual adaptation occurs through …
the processes of accommodation and assimilation.
When new experiences are easily fit into existing schemes, piaget would say that ________ is taking place.
Assimilation
Two-year-old Joey played with many soft and furry stuffed animals He particularly enjoyed picking them up by their ears and dragging them around the house. Joey’s parents gave him a real, live, soft and furry puppy for his birthday. Joey tried to pick her up by her ears and drag her around the house. The puppy wiggled and whimpered. Joey decided he was going to have to change his scheme for playing with soft and furry objects. Piaget would say that this is an example of …
accommodation.
What is the proper sequence of Piaget’s periods of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Fifteen-month-old Lina is sitting in her high chair at lunchtime. She decides to throw her spoon. Next, she throws her half-eaten peanut butter sandwich. While her mother is busy on the telephone, she proceeds to throw her peas, her bowl, her applesauce, and her cup of milk on the floor. Although her mother might call this making a mess, Piaget would call it a …
tertiary circular reaction
The end of the sensorimotor period is marked by …
the ability to use mental symbols.
Piaget’s concept of egocentrism is best illustrated by ….
A 4-year-old holding a picture in front of the television so Big Bird can see it.
What statement best demonstrates Piaget’s concept of animism?
“Gary claimed the ball was tired and just didn’t want to go in the basket”
What is not a characteristic of preoperational thinking?
Reversibility
Research on children’s ability to distinguish appearance from reality found that when children were presented with sories about people who looked happy but felt sad, …
most 7-year-olds responded that the people in the story really were sad while most 4-year-olds responded that the people in the story really were happy.
“Piaget’s theory is too narrow and would be more useful if it were more comprehensive.” Is this a criticism of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?
No
The information processing view …
compares human cognition to computer hardware and software.
Mental programs that are the basis for performing particular tasks are called mental
software
Gayle wants to teach her 4-year-old daughter, Molly, to write her name. However, every time they sit down at the kitchen table to practice, Gayle cannot get Molly to pay attention long enough to write anything. What advice would be most appropriate to give Gayle?
Try working in a quieter, less distracting area with fewer people around.
In her work on infant memory, Carolyn Rovee-Collie found that 3-month-old infants who learned to kick a mobile to make it move …
were able to remember to kick to make the mobile move a few weeks later.
Four-year-old Evan has learned that every evening before going to bed he takes a bath, puts on his pajamas, brushes his teeth, hears a story, turns on heis nightlight, and kisses his parents goodnight. An information-processing theorist would say that these common elements of Evan’s bedtime routine are …
a script
What guidelines concerning the reliability of child witnesses is supported by research?
Warn children that interviewers may sometimes try to trick them or suggest things that didn’t happen.
The cardinality principle of counting states that …
the last number name differs from the previous ones in a counting sequence in denoting the number of objects.
Vygotsky provide …
a view of development as an apprenticeship.
Five-year-old Winnie was unable to arrange the furniture in her dollhouse by herself. However, she was able to completely arrange the furniture when her mother helped her sort the furniture by room and then suggested that she work on one room at a time. The difference between what Winnie was able to do on her won and what she could do with her mother’s help is called …
her zone of proximal development.
Scaffolding refers to …
a style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance that they offer to match a learner’s needs.
Is private speech a form of scaffolding?
No
Children are more likely to use private speech when?
More on difficult tasks than on easy tasks
The sound of “p” in the word “put” and the sound of “a” in “cat” are both …
phonemes
Involves speaking more slowly and with exaggerated changes in pitch and loudness:
Infant-directed speech
At 3 months of age, babies start making vowel-like sounds such as “ooooooo” and “ahhhhhh” which are called ….
Cooing
Beginning at about 7 months, babies’ babbling will include ________, a pattern of rising or falling pitch.
Intonation
Infants’ babbling is influenced by …
the characteristics of the speech that they hear.
Five-month-old Cedric discovered that when he kicked he feet he could make the mobile over his head move. This was such an interesting sight that he kicked his feet over and over just to see the mobile move. Piaget would call this a ...
secondary cirular reaction
Infants usually understand words ….
Before they are able to say them.
Children whose vocabularies are dominated by words that are the names of objects, persons, or action have what kind of language learning style?
Referential
Children whose vocabularies include some names but also many social phrases that are used like a single word have what kind of language learning style?
Expressive
Eighteen-month-old Shannon saw an older woman with gray hair and called her “Grandma”, even though she was not her grandmother. Shannon made a mistake common to young children which is called …
an overextension.
Two-year-old Tyler speaks in sentences such as “Me go” instead of “I want to go”, and “She sleep” instead of “She is sleeping”. Tyler is using …
telegraphic speech
Most children have mastered the basic grammar of their native language by the time they …
enter school.
True or False:
During accommodation a new experience is incorporated into an existing scheme without modification.
False
True or False:
Using a study involving a “shrinking machine” and “Terry the Troll”, DeLoache and associates demonstrated that 2 ½-year-olds cannot understand that a model can be a symbol of something else.
False
True or False:
The salivation response elicited by Pavlov’s dogs is best explained by the principles of operant conditioning.
False
True or False:
Research by Rovee-Collier showed that, by two months of age, infants can recall past events.
True
True or False:
A good way to improve the eyewitness testimony of children is to warn them that an interviewer may sometimes try to trick them.
True
True or False:
A basic principle of understanding numbers involves ordinality, which refers to the fact that numbers differ in magnitude with some being of greater value.
True
True or False:
Private speech is a form of verbal communication a child uses when talking to his/her best friend.
False
True or False:
Coo sounds are composed of a single consonant sound.
False
True or False:
Phonological memory is defined as the ability to recall a visual image after the passage of time.
False
True or False:
In English, “ing” and “ed” represent grammatical morphemes.
True