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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In regards to temperment, describe: activity
dimension of temperament defined by the tempo and vigor of a child's activity
attentional processes
processes that determine which information will be processed further by an individual
specialized neurons in the back of the eye that sense color
cephalocaudal principal
principle that growth occurs from the head first and then down the spine
aspect of temperament that refers to the strength of the infant's emotional response to a situation, the ease with which that response is triggered, and the ease with which the infant can be returned to a nonemotional state
fine-motor skills
motor skills associated with grasping, holding, and manipulating objects
frontal cortex
brain region that regulates personality and goal directed behavior
right and left halves of the cortex
linking individual motions into a chherent, coordinated whole
ability to move around in the world
fatty sheath that wraps around neurons to permit them to transmit information more rapidly
neural plate
flat group of cells present in prenatal development that become the brain and spinal cord
basic cellular unit of the brain and nervous system that specializes in receiving and transmitting information
chemicals released by the terminal buttons that allow neurons to communicate with each other
processes by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, and organizes incoming nerve impulses that are the result of physical stimulation
positron emission tomography
the procedure that shows the amount of activity in various regions of the brain
unlearned responses triggered by specific stimulation
consistent style or pattern of behavior
theory of mind
ideas about connections between thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and behavior that create intuitive understanding of the link between mind and behavior
visual acuity
smallest pattern that one can distinguish reliably
visual cliff
glass-covered platform that appears to have a "shallow" side and a "deep" side; used to study infants depth perception
When a baby throws it’s arms out and then draws them inward in response to a loud noise or when it’s head falls, the baby is displaying what reflex?
Kelly has noticed that whenever she places an object in her newborn son’s hand, he grasps it tightly. He is demonstrating what reflex?
Mariko’s newborn baby received an Apgar score of 10. This means that her baby ….
Is in good physical health
The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) ….
Involves a comprehensive evaluation of a broad range of newborn abilities and behaviors.
Two-month-old Stephen is calm and his eyes are open and attentive. He seems to be inspecting the room he is in. Stephen is in what state?
Alert inactivity
Newborns spend most of their time in which state?
Most babies sleep through the night by when?
3 or 4 months of age
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is more likely …
in infants whose parents smoke
What is not one of Buss and Plomin’s dimensions of temperament?
An infant’s weight typically _______ between birth and one year of age.
The correlation between the average of two parent’s height and their child’s height at two years of age is about what?
What is not an proven advantage of breast feeding over bottle feeding?
Breast milk contains more of the essential nutrients
Malnourishment is most harmful during …
What is the basic unit in the brain and the rest of the nervous system and is a cell that specializes in receiving and transmitting information?
What is in the center of the neuron and contains the basic biological machinery that keeps the neuron alive?
The cell body
Language is controlled largely by the ________ of the brain.
left hemisphere
What is the name of the fatty sheath that allows neurons to transmit information more rapidly?
Personality and deliberate goal-oriented behavior seem to be controlled in the ________ of the brain.
frontal cortex
Stacy wiped out while rollerblading without a helmet and suffered a severe head injury. She now has difficulty recognizing whether her friends are happy or mad or sad, and she often doesn’t know who they are when she sees them You would suspect that she incurred damage to what part of her brain?
right hemisphere
What is used to measure consumption of glucose in different regions of the brain to determine the level of brain activity in those areas?
Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
By what age are most infants able to sit alone?
7 months
Most infants learn to walk at about how many months of age?
12 – 15
What is not an essential skill for locomotion?
The ability to move legs at different speeds
Taiji has just started being able to coordinate the motions of his hands. He now can hold a toy car in one hand and expolore it with his other hand. Taiji is probably about ________ months of age?
Right or left hand preference usually first becomes apparent ….
Sometime after 12 months of age
Newborns have ….
Highly developed senses of taste and smell.
What is true about infant hearing?
Six- to seven-month-old infants are able to distinguish different pitches and differentiate many speech sounds.
A typical newborn can see at 20 feet what adults with normal vision can see at _____ feet.
200 to 400
The ability to see color is …
similar to that of adults by 3 or 4 months of age.
The ability to perceive color is most closely associated with …
The visual cliff is used to assess …
depth perception.
By the time nfants are able to crawl, when their mothers try to coax them across the deep side of a visual cliff the infants typically will …
show fear of the deep side and refuse to cross.
Retinal disparity is used …
as a depth cue.
Infants are …
able to integrate information between sight and touch and between sight and sound.
When infants are shown tow videotapes, one which matches the soundtrack that is being played and one which does not, how would you expect infants to respond?
Look more at the videotape that matches the soundtrack.
A mother surreptitiously places a red mark on her 1-year-old daughter’s nose, then places the infant in front of a mirror. What would you expect the infant to do?
Touch the red mark on the face in the mirror.
Self-awareness is well established in most children by age …
two years
According to the theory of mind, 2-year-olds …
understand that people have desires and that desires can cause behavior.
By about what age do children begin to understand that behavior is often based on a person’s beliefs about events and situations, even when those beliefs are false?
What is in the highest phase of children’s theory of mind?
When a child understands that behavior is often based on a person’s beliefs even when those beliefs are wrong.
True or False:
Reflexes are learned responses.
True or False:
Waking activity means that a baby is awake, calm, and attentive.
True or False:
Infants triple their body weight by the time of their first birthday.
True or False:
Breast-fed babies are ill less often than bottle-fed babies.
True or False:
Less than 1% of American children go to bed hungry.
True or False:
The neural plate is a structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord.
True or False:
Most infants can use a crayon to scribble before they can use a spoon to eat.
True or False:
Infants’ sense of hearing is not as good as that of most adults.
True or False:
Of all the senses, the sense of smell is probably the least developed in infants.
True or False:
Most one-year-olds have a well-defined sense of self-concept.