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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Tissue types in week 2
Epithelium
Mesenchyme
Majority of what happens in week 2
Develop extraembryonic membranes
Extraemryonic membranes
-amnion
-corion (trophoblast)
-yolk sac
2 layers in the embryo
-inner cell mass
-trophoblast
Inner cell mass differentiates into
-epiblast
-hypoblast
epiblast produces
amnion
what is amnion
epiblast cells that migrate to trophoblast and line a cavity
hypoblast produces
yolk sac
waht is the yolk sac?
hypoblast tissues that migrated ventrally and line the rophoblast.
What happens to amnion adn yolk sac?
Decrease in size and become extraembryonic mesoderm.
What does extraembryonic mesoderm become?
Transforms from epithelium to mesenchyme
What characterizes epithelium?
It is polarized cells
what happens when epithelium transforms to mesenchyme?
-loses its polarity
-changes shape
-downregulates CAM
-Upregulates SAM(s=substrate)
Trophoblast forms:
-syncytiotrophoblast
-cytotrophoblast
What is the Chorion?
Extraemryonic mesoderm & trophoblast that transformed into extraembryonic mesoderm
Chorion becomes
Embryonic placenta
All the cels that form the embryo come from the
Epiblast
Gastrulation is
making a 3-layer embryo from the 2
A teratoma is:
a neoplasm of more than one cell type unrelated to the structure to which it is attached.
Major things that happen in week 3
-Bilaminar disc develops
-Primative streak; add the
-Primative node, then get
-cell migration
How does the primitive streak develop and why?
Starts caudal, goes cranial
-Gives 3 axes - dorsal/ventral, anterior-posterior, left/right.
What is the primative node?
Signalling center; site of epithelium->mesenchymal transformation
What causes cell mgiration?
Epiblast layer migrates in.
How do the 3 germ layers develop?
Epiblast replaces hypoblast --> Endoderm.
Epiblast goes between endoderm and itself --> Mesoderm.
Epiblast left behind -> Ectoderm
What does neurulation develop from?
Ectoderm.
What happens in neurulation?
NEural plate -> neural crest -> neural tube
What forms from neural tube?
1. Procencephalon
2. Mesencephalon
3. Rhombencephalon
4. Spinal cord
What forms from the rombencephalon?
-Optic disc
-Optic sac
How do the four areas form from the neural tube?
it flexes and the regions are defined relative to the flex.
What does mesoderm develop?
A cell layer surroudning the amnion and yolk sac.
What forms from the Mesoderm?
1. Paraxial mesoderm
2. Lateral mesoderm
3. Intermediate mesoderm
Paraxial mesoderm forms:
Somites
Somites develop into:
-Derma-myotome
-Sclerotome
Derma and Myotome develop into:
-Skin
-Muscle
Sclerotome dvelops into:
Bone
What does lateral mesoderm form?
-Splanchnic mesoderm
-Somatic mesoderm
Splanchnic mesoderm bcomes
cardiac system
somatic mesoderm becomes
appendicular skeleton
what does intermediate mesoderm develop into?
kidney
What types of muscle dvelop from myotome?
-Epaxial (dorsal rami innervated)
-Hypaxial (ventral rami innervated)
What does the yolk sac develop into?
Angioblasts
Angioblasts develop into
Blood islands
outside = vessels
inside = blood cells
What is the first thing that happens in limb dvelopment?
Limb fields develop
What are the 5 major things that happen in limb development?
1. limb fields develop
2. budding
3. elongation
4. tissue formation
5. develop 3 axes