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23 Cards in this Set

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What are the four major characteristics of cancer cells?
1. Unregulated growth
2. Immortal
3. Increased nutrient intake
4. Anchorage independent in tissue culture
What are the two major ways cancer alters the cell cycle to promotoe growth?
1. RNA tumor viruses can place oncogenes into the DNA
2. Viruses can disrupt the tumor suppressor genes in DNA
What are three types of cancer that have been associated with tumor viruses?
1. Leukemia
2. Carcinomas
3. Sarcomas
An oncogene is by definition...
A gain of function insertion into cellular DNA - dominant (only need one)
Which oncogene is more active in causing tumors in mice, Ras or Myc?
Ras
A tumor supressor gene is technically a...
Loss of function mutation. This disables the tumor suppressor genes that regulate cell growth - recessive (you need two of these mutations)
What are the four different ways viruses/mutations can cause cancer?
1. Diasable a tumor supressor gene (p53)
2. Oncogenes can act as growth factor receptors
3. Dummy receptors that act like they are always on
4. Cancer can mess with signal transducers and cause upregulated cell growth and proliferation
Name three DNA viruses that cause cancer.
1. Human papillomavirus
2. Epstein Barr Virus
3. Hepatitis B
Name two RNA viruses that can cause cancer.
1. HTLV-1 - T cell leukemia
2. Hepatitis C
What does a retrovirus require?
Incorporation into the host DNA. In order for this to happen, they will need RT as well.
Name two ways that retroviruses can cause tumors.
1. Retroviruses can carry oncogenes in their genome
2. They also can activate protooncogenes near their site of integration
Acute transforming viruses all carry...
Oncogenes
What does a class I virus do to cause cancer?
It mimics growth factors.
What does a class II virus do to cause cancer?
It turns growth factor receptors on.
What does a class III virus do to cause cancer?
Act as signal tranducers to keep the cell cycle moving.
What do class IV viruses do?
Turn genes on at the wrong time.
What is a common class III oncogene?
RAS
How do non-acute viruses infect cells and cause cancer?
They insert their non-oncogene DNA near a protooncogene to help upregulate cell production and growth.
What should you think when you think about DNA viruses?
Think tumor suppression blockage.
RB is a tumor suppressor protein that blocks cell proliferation by binding to what?
E2F
What type of virus targets Rb?
Papillomavirus
Papillomavirus produces what protein?
E7
E7 binds to what protein and what happens after that.
E2F causing the dissociation of RB from E2F.