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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What 2 tumors do NOT metastasize?
"BG"
-basal cell carcinmoa
-glioma
Describe the 4 steps in the metastatic cascade?
1= Basement membrane invasion
2= movement through ECM
3= Vascular dissemination
4= Homing
What are the 4 steps that ECM invasion occurs in?
1= detachment
2= BM and ECM degradation
3= Attachment to matrix component
4= Migration of tumor cells
What type of collagen does a tumor degrade in the basement membrane?
Type IV collagen
Tumor cell receptors attach to what in the ECM?
fibronectin
How can tumor cells form emboli (during vascular dissemination and homing)?
-by aggregating and attaching to platelets and leukocytes
Lymphatic spread is common in carcinomas, what are 3 exceptions?
1= Follicular carcinoma (local invasion)
2= renal cell carcinoma (renal vein and then IVC)
3= hepato-cellular carcinoma (hematogenous spread via hepatic and portal veins)
Name 3 types of body cavity seedings?
1= Peritoneal cavity (colorectal carcinoma)
2= pleural cavity (primary lung cancer)
3= Sub-arachnoid space (glioma)
What is a sentinel lymph node?
-First LN or initial group of LN in a regional lymphatic basin that receives lymphatic drainage from tumors
Bone metastasis
Brease
vs
Prostate cancer?
= osteolytic (radiolucent loci) PGE2 and IL1 produced by tumor (hypercalcemia)
=Osteoblastic (radio-dense) inc serum alkaline phosphatase
what does bromodeoxy uridine uptake say about tumors?
high uptake suggestive of high grade tumor; poor prognosis
Tumor staging measures?
descrive the TNM system:
-measures extent of disease
-tumor size
-node
-metastasis
What does tumor grading measure?
degree of differentiation (histological appearance under a microscope)
Duke staging
A=
B=
C=
= tumor is confined
=tumor has spread through muscle layer but no LN involvement
=any tumor involving LN
Prostate cancer
Order tumor marker?
-prostate specific antigen (PSA)
Trophoblastic tumors (Hydatidiform mole, chorio-carcinoma, embryonal carcinoma)
Order tumor marker?
B-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG)
CA colon, pancreas, stomach, breast
Order tumor marker?
Carcino-embryionic antigen (CEA)
Ovarian carcinoma
Order tumor marker?
CA-125
Hepatocellular carcinoma, germ cell tumor of testes or ovary (yolk sac tumor)
Order tumor marker?
a-fetoprotein (AFP)
Small cell carcinoma of lung
Order tumor marker?
Neuron specific enolase (NSE)
Medullary carcinoma of thyroid
Order tumor marker?
Calcitonin
Colon cancer, pancreatic cancer
Order tumor marker?
CA 19-9
Breast carcinoma
Order tumor marker?
CA 15-3