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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What 2 tumors do NOT metastasize?
-basal cell carcinmoa
Describe the 4 steps in the metastatic cascade?
1= Basement membrane invasion
2= movement through ECM
3= Vascular dissemination
4= Homing
What are the 4 steps that ECM invasion occurs in?
1= detachment
2= BM and ECM degradation
3= Attachment to matrix component
4= Migration of tumor cells
What type of collagen does a tumor degrade in the basement membrane?
Type IV collagen
Tumor cell receptors attach to what in the ECM?
How can tumor cells form emboli (during vascular dissemination and homing)?
-by aggregating and attaching to platelets and leukocytes
Lymphatic spread is common in carcinomas, what are 3 exceptions?
1= Follicular carcinoma (local invasion)
2= renal cell carcinoma (renal vein and then IVC)
3= hepato-cellular carcinoma (hematogenous spread via hepatic and portal veins)
Name 3 types of body cavity seedings?
1= Peritoneal cavity (colorectal carcinoma)
2= pleural cavity (primary lung cancer)
3= Sub-arachnoid space (glioma)
What is a sentinel lymph node?
-First LN or initial group of LN in a regional lymphatic basin that receives lymphatic drainage from tumors
Bone metastasis
Prostate cancer?
= osteolytic (radiolucent loci) PGE2 and IL1 produced by tumor (hypercalcemia)
=Osteoblastic (radio-dense) inc serum alkaline phosphatase
what does bromodeoxy uridine uptake say about tumors?
high uptake suggestive of high grade tumor; poor prognosis
Tumor staging measures?
descrive the TNM system:
-measures extent of disease
-tumor size
What does tumor grading measure?
degree of differentiation (histological appearance under a microscope)
Duke staging
= tumor is confined
=tumor has spread through muscle layer but no LN involvement
=any tumor involving LN
Prostate cancer
Order tumor marker?
-prostate specific antigen (PSA)
Trophoblastic tumors (Hydatidiform mole, chorio-carcinoma, embryonal carcinoma)
Order tumor marker?
B-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG)
CA colon, pancreas, stomach, breast
Order tumor marker?
Carcino-embryionic antigen (CEA)
Ovarian carcinoma
Order tumor marker?
Hepatocellular carcinoma, germ cell tumor of testes or ovary (yolk sac tumor)
Order tumor marker?
a-fetoprotein (AFP)
Small cell carcinoma of lung
Order tumor marker?
Neuron specific enolase (NSE)
Medullary carcinoma of thyroid
Order tumor marker?
Colon cancer, pancreatic cancer
Order tumor marker?
CA 19-9
Breast carcinoma
Order tumor marker?
CA 15-3