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44 Cards in this Set

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Absolute
Moral norm that allows no exceptions; (sometimes means a universal norm)
Deontological Ethics
Any view that grounds ethical norms intrinsically; not by looking to results only; an ethic that sees ethical principles as matters of duty
Descriptive Ethics
The first level of ethical analysis; a statement of what people actually believe and practice that makes no claim about ethical normativeness.
Descriptive Relativism
The fact that different people and cultures have different moral values and practices
Divine Command Theory
View that God’s will grounds ethics; the same as ethical voluntarism
Epistemology
Investigation of the sources, methods, and stats of human knowledge claims
Essentialism
Ethical theory that grounds obligation in the nature of God rather than in the will of God; contrasted to voluntarism or divine command ethics
Ethics
Analysis of morality; includes descriptive, normative, and metaethical levels
Metaethics
Third level of ethical analysis that looks at the meaning of the ethical terms and the rules of ethical justification
Morality
Dimension of life related to right conduct, including virtuous character, honorable intentions, and right actions
Normative Relativism
View that what is right in one culture or for one person may not be right for another
Ontology
Study of the nature of being, what exists
Positivism
View that knowledge is limited to empirically observable facts and definitional statements; judges ethical claims as being meaningless.
Prescriptive ethics
Second level of ethical analysis that evaluates activities or virtues as being morally right or wrong; same as normative ethics and contrasted to descriptive ethics
Principles
Broad moral guidelines and precepts tat are more foundational and more general than rules.
Relativism
Stance that sees all ethical beliefs, norms, or methods depending on individual persons or cultures; a denial of absolutes
Rules
Concrete and specific directives for conduct that derive from principles
Teleological ethics
Any view that warrants ethical norms by looking to the nonmoral values the norms bring; a pragmatic ethic
Universal
An ethic norm that applies to all persons; sometimes called an absolute
Utilitarianism
Teleological ethic based on the principle of utility; one ought to act to maximize the greatest good for the greatest number
Creation Ethic
Theological approach to justifying ethics that stresses the similarities between Christian thought and the generic modes of thinking that God crated in all persons; contrasted with kingdom ethic
Kingdom ethic
Theological approach to justifying ethical claims that emphasizes the distinctive of Christian ethics and the centrality of biblical teaching; contrasts with creation ethic
Modernism
Western cultural mentality, associated with the Enlightenment but now gradually eroding, that stresses the supremacy and objectivity of human reason, the possibility of absolute knowledge, and the inevitability of progress; contrasts to postmodernism
Natural Law Theory
Thesis that knowledge of human nature provides a foundation for establishing and understanding moral values and obligations. For Christians, God created human life for certain purposes such that identifying these helps develop and justify a Christian ethic.
Naturalistic Fallacy
Inferring normative (prescriptive) conclusions from factual (descriptive) premises alone; deriving the ought entirely from the is
Postmodernism
Western cultural mentality that emphasizes the perspectival and limited character of human knowing; it justifies truth claims holistically (rather than individually) and pragmatically (rather than through correspondence); contrasts with modernism.
Generalism
Theory that considers some ethical norms binding in most situations; however, generalism allows that in certain cases all norms are subject to exceptions
Graded Absolutism
Theory maintaining that when two or more absolute ethical norms come into unavoidable conflict, the right and nonculpable course of action is to follow the higher norm.
Moral Dilemma
Situation in which there is a conflict between two or more ethical absolutes
Norm
General term indicating a rule, a guide to character and action
Value
In the moral sense, a quality (such as loyalty, truthfulness, or justice) that human beings esteem and toward which they direct their moral behavior.
Contextualism
Act-oriented view of ethics that stresses the role of unique contexts or situations in determining ethical decisions; often equated with situationism, but not all contexualtists identify with Fletcher’s situation ethics specifically because of its antinomian tendencies.
Legalism
Ethical systems, condemned in the Bible, the overemphasize law and develop detailed rules for many specific matters without regard for justice and mercy; legalism tends to universalize norms that are relevant in particular cultures only; contrasted with antinomianism.
Principialism
Ethical approach that applies broad, abstract moral guidelines (principles), in contextually sensitive ways, to general classes of cases
Rule-orientation
View of ethics that classes similar acts into groups and develops general norms to cover all instances in the category; contrasted with act-orientation
Situationism
act-oriented view of ethics; sees ethical analysis applying to individual cases; stresses personal responsibility for a decision in concrete moral contexts; sometimes also called contextualism
Human Rights
A concept with many possible meanings, but most commonly those basic prerogatives, powers, and expectations of all people by virtue of their being human beings in a society
Justice
A trait of individuals or societies that seeks to achieve and enforce impartially those conditions that foster human flourishing, by rendering to each person what is due him or her
Love
The supreme virtue, rational, emotional, and volitional, that seeks the highest good of others through self-giving relationships with them
Natural Law
A cluster of ethical theories based on the idea that absolute and universal moral values and obligations can be determined by reflection on human nature and conduct; these principles of obligation are believed to be built into the constitution of all human beings
Retributive Justice
The lawful and fair punishment of criminals by society
Restorative Justice
requires at minimum, that we address victims’ harms and needs, hold offenders accountable to put right those harms, and involve victims, offenders, and communities in this process
Three Pillars Of Restorative Justice
Harms and needs - Obligations - Engagement
Distributive Justice
The fair allocation of societal goods and benefits (such as natural resources) and societal burdens (such as taxation) among individuals and social groups