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32 Cards in this Set

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True or False
Peripheralization of symptoms is a good sign and the use of traction should be continued.
False, treatment should be stopped. Centralization of symptoms would indicate continuation of symptoms.
When using cervical traction, positioning the patient's cervical spine in the neutral position will allow greater separation of the posterior structures including the facet joints and foramina.
False, positioning the patient's cervical spine in a flexed position would.
When applying the pelvic belt for lumbar traction, the belt should be positioned inferior to the iliac crest.
True of False
False, it should be poitioned superior to the iliac crest
When using lumbar traction, how would you determine the amount of force to be set for treating nerve root compression?
50% of patient's body weight
When using lumbar traction when would you release the table to split?
After 1 cycle; to take up slack in belt and rope during relaxation phase.
What are the four impairements that you can use US to treat?
Pain, soft tissue shortening, delayed tissue healing, prolonged inflammation
What impairments should thermal US be used to treat?
soft tissue shortening
What impairments should nonthermal US be used to treat?
delayed tissue healing, prolonged inflammation
True or False: 1 MHz frequency penetrates deeper than 3 MHz
True- 3-5 cm
What kind of tissues absorb the most US waves?
Those that have a high collagen content. Liagments, fascia, tendons, bone
When the goal of treatment is to increase tissue temperatures, what is the minimal therapeutic temperature that must be reached?
40 degrees C
When using 1 MHz frequency why is necessary to use higher intensities?
Higher intensities are needed due to attenuation which occurs as US waves travel through tissue.
Refraction
The redirection of a wave at an interface.
Reflection
The redirection of an incident beam away from a reflecting surface at an angle equal and opposite to the angle of incidence.
True or False: When using thermal US the duty cycle should be set at 100%.
True
What test needs to be performed prior to performing cervical traction?
Vertebral Artery test
According to the chart on page 377, when the goal of treatment is to distract the joint surfaces in the cervical spine, what duty cycle should be used?
1:1 (15 sec on, 15 sec off)
Name the contraindications for the use of US?
Pacemaker, Pregnancy, Malignancy,CNS tissue: especially laminectomy, Joint Cement, Plastic Components,Thrombophlebitis
Eyes,Reproductive organs
The application of US in conjuction with a topical drug prepartion as the ultrasound conduction medium is called?
Phonophresis
What is the recommended number of phonophresis treatments?
Drugs that diffuse across the stratum corneum are distrubted throughout the body by vascular circulation, therefore, to avoid adrenal suppression, 6 is the recommended number.
Name the contraindications for the use of traction?
If motion is contraindicated, Acute injury or inflammation, Jt hypermobility/unstable jt.
If symptoms perpherialize or worsen, Tumor
True or False: US should not be performed over open growth plates?
True, especially if using greater then 3.0 w/cm
Which of the following tissues would absorb the greatest amount of US: bone, muscle, tendon, ligament
Bone
What are two adverse effects of US?
Burns and Blood cell stasis (this is why you must move the transducer throughout treatment)
What are the clinical indications for the use of spinal traction?
Disc bulge or herniation, Nerve root impingement, joint hypomobility, subacute joint inflammation, paraspinal muscle spasm
What are the mechanisms by which traction can reduce a disc bulge?
Clicking” back of disc fragment, Suction due to decreased intradiscal pressure, By tensing PLL thereby pushing any post displaced material anteriorly.
True or False: an inverse relationship exists between the depth of penetration of US and its frequency.
True
True or False, 1 MHz US can penetrate up to 5 inches.
False, 5 cm
What parameter of US determines if the treatment is thermal or non-thermal?
Duty cycle
What parameter determines the length of treatment of US?
The relationship of the transducer head to the area being treated. Usually an area that is twice the size of the transducer take 5-10 minutes.
True or False, higher intensities are needed when using 1 MHz because of reflection.
False, attenuation
True or False, US should never be performed over area of the spine that has had a laminectomy because of the possiblity of burning the spinal cord due to cavitation.
True