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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
As a supervisor,‭ ‬Jason J.‭ ‬always tries to modify his communication and managerial style so that they‭ “‬match‭” ‬the style and characteristics of the particular employee he is interacting with.‭ ‬Based on this information,‭ ‬you can conclude that Jason:
is high in self-monitoring.

High self-monitors are concerned about the impression they make and, as a result, pay close attention to the behaviors of other people so that they can adjust their own behavior to fit the expectations, style, and other characteristics of those people.
Which of the following is true about a person who is faced with an approach-avoidance conflict‭?
The closer the person gets to his/her goal,‭ ‬the stronger the desire to avoid it.

Lewin (1948) distinguished between three motivational conflicts: approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, and approach-avoidance.

The approach-avoidance conflict occurs when a goal has both positive and negative aspects. This kind of conflict is difficult to resolve because, as a person moves closer to the goal, the desire to avoid it becomes stronger and, as the person moves away from the goal, the desire to approach it increases.

e.g. the licensing exam - the closer I get the more anxiety which made me repeatedly extend the deadline. After extending the deadline I regret it and want to approach it b4 VT
A‭ ‬movie viewer is most likely to report feeling uncomfortable in a crowded movie theater when he/she is viewing a‭ ________ ‬film.

The consequences of crowding depend on several factors including the nature of the environment and task.

Research by Worchel and Brown (1984) found that crowding is experienced as less uncomfortable or stressful in attention-grabbing, arousing situations than in uninteresting situations. They conclude that this difference is due to the fact that crowding produces arousal and, when the arousal can be attributed to the circumstances, it is not experienced as unpleasant. However, when the arousal cannot be attributed to the circumstances (e.g., when the movie is boring), it is experienced as unpleasant.

e.g. crowding in an elevator is boring and uncomfortable whereas crowding at a concert is less stressful b/c the concert is attention-grabbing/arousing
A person who is‭ ‬low in self-monitoring‭ (‬Snyder,‭ ‬1987‭) ‬will rely on which of the following when deciding how to act in a particular social situation‭?
his/her own feelings,‭ ‬attitudes,‭ ‬and beliefs.

As defined by Snyder (1987), self-monitoring refers to the degree to which people are concerned about the impressions they convey to others in social situations and are able to control those impressions.

A person who is low in self-monitoring relies on his/her own feelings, attitudes, and beliefs when determining how to act in social situations and, as a result, acts similarly in different social situations.

People who are high in self-monitoring are concerned about the impressions that others have of them and, as a result, adapt their behaviors to the emotional reactions and behaviors of the people in each social situation.
Sherif and Hovland’s‭ (‬1961‭) ‬social judgment theory is useful for understanding which of the following‭?
attitude change

Social judgment theory distinguishes between three “categories of judgment” that determine our susceptibility to persuasion – the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of non-commitment, and the latitude of rejection.

Social judgment theory predicts that we are most likely to be persuaded (i.e., to change our attitude) when the position advocated by a message is within our latitude of acceptance.
Studies investigating the impact of viewing violent pornography have supported the predictions of which of the following‭?
social learning theory

The research has found that exposure to pornography with violent themes increases the viewers’ aggressive behaviors as well as acceptance of violence against women.

Social learning theory predicts that we acquire behaviors by observing others engage in those behaviors. Therefore, its predictions are consistent with the results of studies investigating the effects of viewing violent pornography.
In a research study,‭ ‬prison inmates and counselors working at the prison were asked to explain why the inmates had committed their crimes.‭ ‬In response,‭ ‬the inmates cited situational factors,‭ ‬while the counselors attributed the offenses to the dispositional characteristics of the inmates.‭ ‬Which of the following predicts the outcome of this study‭?
actor-observer effect

The answers to this question are all attribution biases or other cognitive biases that you’ll want to be familiar with for the licensing exam.

The actor-observer effect addresses the discrepancy in an actor’s and observer’s attributions for the actor’s behavior. It predicts that actors tend to attribute their own behaviors to situational factors, while observers tend to attribute the actors’ behaviors to dispositional factors.

The fundamental attribution bias is the tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors when making attributions about the behaviors of others. Since the fundamental attribution bias only explains the counselors’ attributions about the crimes committed by the inmates, this answer is only partially correct and not the best answer of those given.

The self-serving bias refers to the tendency to make dispositional attributions for our successes but situational attributions for our failures.

The false consensus effect is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree with us.
The results of a research study on persuasion reveal that,‭ ‬one month following exposure to a persuasive message,‭ ‬participants in the study can remember the message but have forgotten the source of the message.‭ ‬This result is a manifestation of which of the following‭?
sleeper effect

The phenomenon described in this question is probably one that you have experienced yourself. It has been used to explain why the attitude change produced by a high-credible communicator decreases over time, while the attitude change produced by a low-credible communicator increases over time.

This question describes the sleeper effect – i.e., the tendency to remember a message over time but to forget its source.
Dr.‭ ‬Smith,‭ ‬a school psychologist,‭ ‬is working with a student who has recently failed an important exam.‭ ‬When she asks the student why he failed,‭ ‬he says it's because the test items were very tricky and poorly worded.‭ ‬The student's statement is a manifestation of which of the following‭?
external locus of control

According to Rotter (1966), people differ with regard to the amount of control they feel they have over their own lives. Specifically, people with an internal locus of control feel that their behavior is controlled by personal choice and free will, while people with an external locus of control feel that their behavior is controlled by fate and other external factors.

A student with an external locus of control would be likely to attribute his test failure to factors external to himself (e.g., to difficult exam questions).
A manager or consultant interested in maximizing her influence on employees should be aware that the productivity of employees is most likely to be positively affected if she relies on which bases of social power‭?
expert and referent

French and Raven (1959) distinguished between six bases of social power: reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, informational, and expert.

Several authorities have suggested that incremental power (which is a combination of expert and referent power) is optimal for managers and consultants because it has the greatest positive effects on employee performance. A person has expert power when he/she has needed expertise and referent power when he/she is liked and respected.
According to Baumeister,‭ ‬Catanese,‭ ‬and Wallace‭ (‬2002‭)‬,‭ ‬a man may feel that his personal freedom is being restricted when a woman refuses his sexual advances and,‭ ‬as a result,‭ ‬become aggressive toward the woman.‭ ‬In other words,‭ ‬Baumeister and his colleagues suggest that,‭ ‬in some circumstances,‭ ‬sexual aggression toward women by men may be attributable to which of the following‭?

The phrase “feel that his personal freedom is being restricted” should have helped you identify the correct response to this question. Reactance (also known as psychological reactance) occurs when a person acts in a way that is opposite of what is being requested because the person feels that his/her freedom-of-choice is being restricted. Based on their research, Baumeister and his colleagues conclude that the attempts of sexually coercive men to force women to engage in sexual behavior is the result of a combination of reactance and narcissism.
Zimbardo’s‭ (‬1972‭) ‬prison study illustrated the impact of which of the following on behavior‭?
social roles

In Zimbardo's (1972) prison study, students were randomly assigned to enact the role of either a prisoner or prison guard and were placed in an environment that simulated an actual prison.

Zimbardo’s (1972) prison study confirmed that people often alter their behaviors so that they are consistent with assigned roles: Even though students had been randomly assigned to the role of prisoner or guard, they quickly adopted behaviors consisted with their roles.
Which of the following emphasizes the role of the costs and rewards of a relationship on a person’s decision to stay in the relationship‭?
social exchange theory

For the licensing exam, you’ll want to be familiar with all of the phenomena listed in the answers to this question.

As its name implies, social exchange theory is based on the premise that human behavior is affected by the exchange of rewards between actors. Specifically, it predicts that the decision to stay in a relationship depends on the balance of costs and rewards: When a person believes that costs exceed rewards, the person will leave the relationship, but when the person believes that rewards exceed the costs, he/she will stay in the relationship.

Gain-loss theory (also known as the gain-loss effect) refers to the tendency to like or be most attracted to people who initially evaluate us negatively but subsequently evaluate us in positive ways.

Expectancy theory predicts that motivation is the result of three beliefs – expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.

Social comparison theory predicts that people make judgments about themselves by comparing their behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs to those of other people.
Research on consumer behavior has found that providing a bonus to customers for purchasing a product increases the sales of that product.‭ ‬However,‭ ‬if the bonus is subsequently discontinued,‭ ‬product loyalty declines substantially.‭ ‬This phenomenon is predicted by which of the following‭?
overjustification hypothesis

In the situation described in this question, removal of an external reinforcement produces a decrease in the target behavior.

The overjustification hypothesis predicts that a person’s internal motivation to perform a behavior will be weakened when he/she is provided with external reinforcement for doing so.
Raymond R.‭ ‬and his wife have not been getting along for some time,‭ ‬and Raymond has recently started thinking about seeking a divorce.‭ ‬The problem with getting a divorce is that it will require Raymond to either divide the business he and his wife have or to sell his share of the business to her,‭ ‬neither of which appeals to him.‭ ‬The problem with staying with his wife is that Raymond will have to continue putting up with her nagging and his feeling that he has no‭ "‬life of his own.‭" ‬Assuming that Raymond is experiencing an‭ “‬avoidance-avoidance conflict,‭” ‬it is most likely that he will do which of the following in the near future‭?
vacillate between the two options,‭ ‬first choosing one and then the other

Dollard and Miller (1950) distinguished between three types of conflict – avoidance-avoidance, approach-approach, and approach-avoidance.

An avoidance-avoidance conflict produces vacillation between the two courses of action. Even if you're not familiar with Dollard and Miller's work, you've probably had a personal experience that could help you understand why this is the correct answer.
‭ ‬In a research study,‭ ‬boys observe a model act aggressively toward an inflatable‭ “‬Bobo‭” ‬doll.‭ ‬For some boys,‭ ‬the model is rewarded for acting aggressively‭; ‬for others,‭ ‬the model is punished‭; ‬and,‭ ‬for others,‭ ‬the model is neither rewarded nor punished.‭ ‬Subsequently,‭ ‬all boys are offered incentives for acting aggressively toward the doll.‭ ‬Based on your knowledge of Bandura’s‭ (‬1983‭) ‬research on social learning theory,‭ ‬you predict that:
all boys‭ (‬those who saw the model rewarded,‭ ‬punished,‭ ‬or receiving no consequence‭) ‬will act aggressively toward the doll.

Bandura found that, when no incentive was offered to the boys for imitating the model’s behavior, only those in the reward or no consequence condition did so. However, when boys were offered an incentive for imitating the model, all boys acted aggressively toward the Bobo doll. These results confirmed that learning and performance are distinct – i.e., all boys learned the aggressive behavior by observing the model regardless of whether the model received a reward, punishment, or no consequence for acting aggressively.
The elaboration likelihood model predicts that the recipient of a persuasive message is more likely to use the peripheral route of information processing when:
the person delivering the message is a‭ ‬well-liked‭ ‬and trusted‭ ‬celebrity.

The elaboration likelihood model (Petty and Cacioppo, 1980) distinguishes between central and peripheral processing routes. The central route involves active, effortful cognitive processing (cognitive elaboration), while the peripheral route involves reliance on simple decision-making rules.

a. CORRECT A listener is more likely to use the peripheral route (i.e., rely on peripheral cues) when the person delivering the message is attractive or well-liked,

A recipient who is in a neutral or slightly negative mood is more likely to use the central route for processing a communication.

A person is more likely to use the central route when the message is important or personally relevant.
According to‭ ‬Bem’s‭ (‬1972‭) ‬self-perception theory:
people infer their own attitudes and emotions by observing their own behaviors and the circumstances in which those behaviors occur.

Self-perception theory predicts that people judge or determine their own internal states in the same way that they determine the states of other people – i.e., by considering external cues.

According to self-perception theory, we’re most likely to rely on external information for determining or judging our internal states when internal cues are ambiguous, weak, or difficult to interpret.