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55 Cards in this Set

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job analysis
Personnel Psychology

Job Analysis—one of the first things that happen. Skills, knowledge, and experience required to do a job effectively.

Purpose of Job Analysis—help train people, develop training programs, recruit people, decisions regarding raises/firing.
how to calculate adverse impact
80% (4/5th):
Multiply the selection rate of the majority group by 80%.

200 applicants---100 White/100 AA.

40 Whites hired, times 80% = 32%.

If the selection rate of the minority group is less than 80% of the majority group, you have adverse impact.
According to House’s‭ (‬1971‭) ‬path-goal theory,‭ ‬the optimal leadership style depends primarily on:
certain characteristics of the worker and the work situation.

House’s path-goal theory distinguishes between four leadership styles: directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented.

According to path-goal theory, the optimal leadership style depends on certain characteristics of the worker (e.g., self-confidence and locus of control) and the work situation (e.g., degree of task challenge and ambiguity).
A group's performance on a(n‭) __________ ‬task is limited by the performance of the least skilled or knowledgeable member of the group.

Group tasks may be categorized as additive, compensatory, disjunctive, or conjunctive.

On a conjunctive task, the performance of the least competent member places a limit on the group's product or performance. Mountain climbing is an example of a conjunctive task.

On additive tasks, the coordinated efforts of several people add together to form the group product.

When performing a compensatory task, the average of the contributions of all members of the group represents the group product.

On a disjunctive task, the solution of one member of the group is chosen by the group to be the group’s solution.
An important implication of Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership is that:
an effective manager may become ineffective if the situation changes in certain ways.

Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership proposes that a worker's performance depends on the interaction between the leader’s leadership style (high LPC versus low LPC) and the favorableness of the situation, which refers to the extent to which the leader has influence, the tasks are structured, and the leader is in a position to reward employees for good performance.

Fiedler believed that different leadership styles are more effective in different situations. Specifically, he believed that low LPC leaders are most effective in very favorable and unfavorable situations, while high LPC leaders are most effective in moderately favorable situations. Therefore, if the situation changes in terms of favorableness, an effective leader can actually become ineffective (and vice versa).
When a predictor has a validity coefficient of‭ ‬.40‭ ‬and the base rate is‭ ‬60%,‭ ‬the predictor will be maximally useful for decision-making when the selection ratio is:

The usefulness of a selection test for making hiring decisions is affected by three factors: its validity coefficient, the selection ratio, and the base rate.

A predictor's decision-making accuracy (incremental validity) is maximized when the base rate is close to 50% and the selection ratio is as low as possible. A selection ratio of 1:20 (5%) means that there are twenty applicants for every one job opening, and, of the selection ratios given, it is the lowest.
Fielder's contingency model of leadership
Fiedler's LPC (least preferred coworker) scale measures the extent to which a leader describes ineffective subordinates in positive terms. A high LPC leader is one who has nice things to say even about inefficient workers.

Fiedler's theory is a “contingency” theory and predicts that the most effective leadership style depends on the nature of the situation.

According to Fiedler, low LPC leaders are most effective in low and high favorable situations, while high LPC leaders are most effective in moderately favorable situations.
Lewin’s force field theory describes planned change in organizations as involving which of the following stages‭?
unfreezing, changing, refreezing

According to Lewin (1951), organizations continuously respond to forces that either promote or resist change.
Alderfer’s‭ (‬1972‭) ‬ERG theory is best viewed as a modification of and alternative to:
Maslow's need heirarchy theory

ERG theory proposes that we have three basic needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.

Alderfer modified Maslow’s need hierarchy theory so that it better corresponds to research showing that humans have three (rather than five) distinct needs and that more than one need can act as a motivator at any point in time.
According to House’s‭ (‬1971‭) ‬path-goal theory,‭ ‬the optimal leadership style depends primarily on:
certain characteristics of the worker and the work situation.

House’s path-goal theory distinguishes between four leadership styles: directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented.

According to path-goal theory, the optimal leadership style depends on certain characteristics of the worker (e.g., self-confidence and locus of control) and the work situation (e.g., degree of task challenge and ambiguity).
In organizations,‭ ‬peer evaluations:
are useful for predicting an employee’s subsequent promotions.

Peer evaluations are not often used in organizations, but the research indicates that they can provide accurate and useful information.

Peer evaluations have been found valid for certain purposes and appear to be particularly accurate in predicting training success and subsequent promotions.

The research suggests that peer and supervisor ratings agree more with each other than they do with self-ratings.
Which of the following would be most useful for establishing comparable worth‭?
Comparable worth refers to the principle that men and women should receive comparable compensation for work that requires similar skills, knowledge, responsibilities, etc.

A job evaluation is conducted in organizations to determine the relative worth of jobs in order to set wages and salaries. Several methods of job evaluation are useful for establishing comparable worth.
If a supervisor includes the supervisee in the goal-setting process,‭ ‬she will most likely find the resulting goals to be:
more difficult than the goals the supervisor would have set alone.

Although studies have shown that participation in goal-setting is generally less important than the acceptance of goals, there is evidence that, in some circumstances, participation is associated with benefits.

There is evidence that, when workers participate in setting their own goals, the goals are more difficult than those the supervisor would have set alone.
Which of the following will have the greatest impact on employees‭’ ‬perceptions of distributive justice at work‭?
Employees receive the pay and benefits they believe they deserve.

Researchers interested in organizational justice distinguish between three types – distributive, procedural, and interactional.

Distributive justice refers to the fairness of the outcomes of organizational policies and procedures.

"Employees participate in making decisions that affect their jobs" sounds more like procedural justice, which refers to the fairness of the ways in which procedures and policies are implemented.

"Employees believe hiring and promotion decisions are fair" also sounds like procedural justice.

Interactional justice refers to how employees perceive the quality and content of their interactions with managers and other employees e.g. "Employees feel they are treated with respect and consideration by managers."
When performing a(n‭) ________ ‬task,‭ ‬group members select a solution offered by one of the group members as the group’s solution.

A distinction is made between four types of group tasks – compensatory, disjunctive, conjunctive, and additive.

For disjunctive tasks, the group selects a solution (ideally the optimal solution) from those proposed by individual group members.

On conjunctive tasks, group members act in unison, which means that the group product is limited by the performance of the weakest member.

In a compensatory task, the group’s performance is the average of the effort or performance of the individual members.

When working on an additive task, the group product is the sum of the contributions of each member.
The research indicates that,‭ ‬when Total Quality Management‭ (‬TQM‭) ‬fails to live up to its potential,‭ ‬this is most often because:
employees were not sufficiently involved in decision-making.

The primary goal of TQM is to continuously improve the quality of the organization’s products and services. This is accomplished by evaluating customer satisfaction, maximizing employee involvement and empowerment, and making continuous improvements in organizational processes.

Although TQM emphasizes team involvement in decision-making, too often decisions are made unilaterally by the supervisor.
An implication of Bandura’s social cognitive theory is that,‭ ‬to maximize worker motivation,‭ ‬a job should be designed so that:
the job maximizes opportunities for self-regulation.

The most recent version of Bandura’s (1997) social learning theory – social cognitive theory – emphasizes the impact of self-regulation on behavior.

Bandura’s social cognitive theory distinguishes between four processes that contribute to self-regulation: goal-setting, self-observation, self-evaluation, and self-reaction. According to this theory, self-regulation (the exercise of influence over one’s own behavior) is a primary determinant of motivation.
As defined by Brousseau and Driver‭ (‬1994‭)‬,‭ “‬career concept‭” ‬refers to a person’s:
career decisions and motives.

Career concept is a key concept in K. R. Brousseau and M. J. Driver’s model of career development

As defined by Brousseau and Driver, career concept refers to an individual’s career decisions and motives, which vary in terms of three dimensions – frequency of job change; direction of change; and type of change in job content. Status on these dimensions produces four career concepts: steady state, linear, spiral, and transitory.
As defined by McGregor‭ (‬1960‭)‬,‭ ‬Theory X managers:
believe they must closely supervise employees.
McGregor (1960) distinguished between two types of managers – Theory X and Theory Y.
This is consistent with McGregor’s description of Theory X managers. According to McGregor, these managers believe that workers have an inherent dislike of work, do not want responsibility, and perform best when they are closely supervised and controlled (e.g., through the use of rewards and punishments).

"empower employees by encouraging them to set their own performance goals" sounds more like Theory Y managers who assume that workers are capable of (and prefer) self-control and self-direction.

"are most effective when the task is complex and unstructured" also sounds like Theory Y

"Employees view work‭ “‬as natural as play‭” ‬and actively seek autonomy and responsibility" is characteristic of theory Y
To promote recycling in a community,‭ ‬you attempt to establish a collaboration between educators,‭ ‬community leaders,‭ ‬and interested community members.‭ ‬This approach is best described as:

This question is referring to Chin and Benne's (1976) distinction between three strategies for planned change: normative-reeducative, rational-empirical, and power-coercive.

A key characteristic of the normative-reeducative strategy is its focus on collaboration between individuals representing different disciplines and interests in order to use norms and peer pressure to foster change.

The rational-empirical strategy utilizes information as the primary change agent.

The power-coercive strategy utilizes the power and authority of leaders to facilitate change.
A manager who adheres to the principles of‭ "‬scientific management‭" ‬would‭ ‬most likely agree with which of the following‭?
Because employees value money more than other incentives,‭ ‬pay is the most effective motivator.

Scientific management was developed by Frederick Taylor (1911) who applied the scientific method to the study of job productivity

Taylor believed that employees are motivated primarily by economic self-interest and, therefore, that money is the most effective motivator.
Which of the following performance appraisal techniques would be most useful when a primary goal of appraisal is to provide employees with specific feedback that will help them improve their job performance‭?

A BARS (behaviorally-anchored rating scale) is a graphic rating scale in which an employee's performance on several dimensions is rated in terms of specific behaviors. This format facilitates providing the employee with feedback about acceptable and unacceptable work-related behaviors.
Frame-of-reference training is used to:
improve a rater’s accuracy when evaluating a ratee’s performance.

Frame-of-reference (FOR) training is a type of rater training.

The goal of FOR training is to improve raters’ accuracy when completing performance appraisals by helping them identify and focus on the most important job performance dimensions and distinguish behaviors that are indicative of good, average, and poor performance within each dimension.
From the perspective of Herzberg’s two-factor theory,‭ ‬the relationship between pay and motivation is best described by which of the following‭?
Pay does not act as a source of motivation.

Herzberg's two-factor theory proposes that all people have two basic needs – hygiene needs and motivator needs.

Herzberg's two-factor theory identifies pay as a hygiene factor. Like other hygiene factors, pay leads to dissatisfaction when it is perceived to be inadequate but produces a state of neutrality when it is adequate. To increase motivation (and satisfaction), motivator factors must be provided by the job.
A group member accumulates‭ “‬idiosyncrasy credits‭” ‬by:
consistently adhering to group norms.

According to Hollander (1960), idiosyncrasy credits allow group members to occasionally violate group norms without experiencing negative consequences.

A group member accumulates idiosyncrasy credits by gaining prestige, status, and respect; and one way for doing so is to consistently adhere to group norms.
A personnel director decides to raise a selection test’s cutoff score when using the test to assist in hiring decisions.‭ ‬Most likely the personnel director has made this decision in order to:
decrease the number of false positives.

Raising the predictor cutoff score decreases the number of true and false positives and increases the number of true and false negatives.

Most likely, a personnel director would raise the predictor cutoff in order to decrease the number of false positives since these individuals "cost the company money" (i.e., they would be hired on the basis of their test scores but would be unsuccessful on the job).
Job rotation,‭ ‬job enrichment,‭ ‬and job enlargement:
help alleviate alienation and boredom.

Job rotation, job enrichment, and job enlargement are methods of job redesign.

By increasing the variety of tasks (which all three methods of job redesign do), worker alienation and boredom are likely to be reduced.
A process consultant is most likely to focus on which of the following‭?
group norms and communication patterns

Process consultation is a type of OD intervention that focuses on helping members of a work group understand the processes that are undermining their interactions with one another.

Process consultants observe group members in action and help them identify and rectify problems, especially those related to group norms and communication patterns.
In terms of training program evaluation,‭ ‬Kirkpatrick‭ (‬1976‭) ‬contends that‭ _______ ‬criteria are the most important criteria to evaluate but are often the most difficult to develop and,‭ ‬therefore,‭ ‬the most infrequently used.

Kirkpatrick (1976) distinguishes between four levels of training program evaluation – reaction, learning, behavioral, and results.

Results criteria are the fourth level in Kirkpatrick’s model and assess the value of the training program in terms of the organization’s goals. According to Kirkpatrick, the higher the level of evaluation, the more difficult and costly the evaluation process are but the more significant the information.
When using survey feedback as an organizational development technique,‭ ‬the focus of the survey is on:
employees‭’ ‬attitudes toward and perceptions of the organization.

Survey feedback entails three steps: data collection, feedback meetings, and action plans.

a. Incorrect See explanation for response b.

The survey feedback process involves administering a survey to employees at all levels to assess their attitudes toward and perceptions of the organization and to evaluate the organizational climate. The results of the survey are discussed with employees and provide the basis for identifying specific problems and actions plans for resolving those problems.
Assessment centers were originally used during World War II as a means of selecting OSS agents. They are now used primarily for evaluating and predicting the performance of managerial-level employees.
Assessment centers are used to evaluate managerial-level employees for the purpose of selection, promotion, or training and involve having participants engage in a variety of exercises, many of which simulate the actual tasks a manager performs on-the-job.
A problem with the‭ "‬critical incident technique‭" ‬is that:
it does not provide a very good picture of what is typically required for effective job performance.

The "critical incident technique" is a method of job analysis, and its results are often used to develop performance appraisal measures.

The critical incidents identified using the critical incident technique are behaviors that are crucial to job performance (i.e., extreme behaviors) and often do not reflect what people typically do.
The major advantage of using a forced-choice method as an employee performance appraisal technique is that:
it helps alleviate leniency and other biases.

When using the forced-choice technique, the rater chooses the behavior from two or more behaviors that best describe the employee, with behaviors being paired or grouped so that they are similar in terms of social desirability.

This technique was developed specifically to reduce rater biases, and there is some evidence that it accomplishes this goal.

a drawback of this technique is the difficulty of its development.
Compared to seven individuals working alone,‭ ‬a seven-member team is:
more likely to make riskier decisions.

This question is asking about research comparing individual and group processes.

The tendency of groups to make riskier decisions than individuals do is referred to as the "risky shift."
Research on job satisfaction suggests that it:
is a relatively stable trait and is minimally affected by job changes.

The research has found that job satisfaction is relatively stable over time and across jobs. One explanation for this is that job satisfaction is strongly related to a tendency toward positive or negative affect, which is a stable characteristic: In other words, people with negative affect tend to be dissatisfied with work, while those with positive affect tend to be satisfied.
According to Super's career development theory,‭ ‬job satisfaction is directly related to:
the degree to which the person is able to implement his/her self-concept at work.

“self-concept” is a key concept in Super’s theory

According to Super, the self-concept consists of the values, abilities, personality traits, needs, and interests that we believe we possess. Self-concept influences career choice; and the degree of match between the self-concept and the job affects the individual’s job satisfaction, stability, and success.

'S'uper - 'S'elf Concept
The‭ “‬paired comparison‭” ‬technique is used to:

evaluate an employee’s‭ ‬job performance.

The paired comparison technique is a method of performance appraisal.

When using the paired comparison technique, an employee is compared to every other employee on each dimension of job performance.
equity theory
predicts that motivation and performance are related to perceptions about one's own input/outcome ratio and the input/outcome ratios of comparable others.

Underpayment is more likely to cause a substantial change in performance, especially a long-term change.
job satisfaction
For the exam, you want to be familiar with factors that do and do not correlate with job satisfaction.

The research has found that job satisfaction is a good predictor of longevity and mental and physical health. However, the studies have consistently found low correlations between job satisfaction and performance.
To intervene effectively,‭ ‬a mediator should:
introduce new ideas and alternatives for reaching an agreement to the disputants.

A mediator is a neutral third party whose primary task is to help disputants reach an agreement.

“Perhaps the most creative thing a mediator can do is to introduce new issues and alternatives, thereby broadening the disputants' horizons and providing them with ideas for achieving integrative agreements” (J. Z. Rubin et al.)

It is usually more effective to address multiple issues as a package rather than to negotiate issues separately.

When there are a large number of issues that must be resolved separately, it is better to progress from the more general to the more specific.
theories of motivation

According to Herzberg's two-factor theory, lower-level needs such as physiological and safety needs have little effect on job satisfaction or motivation when they are fulfilled but produce dissatisfaction when they are unfulfilled. In contrast, higher-level needs have little effect on satisfaction and motivation when they are unfulfilled but increase satisfaction and motivation when they are fulfilled. Two-factor theory would, therefore, predict that financial incentives, which address lower-level needs, would not increase motivation and satisfaction.

ERG theory predicts that people have three basic needs – Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. From the perspective of ERG theory, opportunities for increased compensation may help satisfy an individual’s needs and thereby lead to increased satisfaction and motivation.

Expectancy theory predicts that valued outcomes lead to increased satisfaction and motivation.

Equity theory predicts that motivation is related to the comparisons we make between our input/outcome ratio and the input/outcome ratios of workers performing similar jobs.
leadership styles

Transformational leaders motivate employees by recognizing the need for change, creating a vision that guides change, and transmitting that vision to employees. In contrast to charismatic leaders, they empower followers and activate their higher-order needs.

Transactional leaders foster worker motivation and productivity primarily by simplifying and structuring tasks and providing rewards for successful performance.

Charismatic leaders share several characteristics with transformational leaders but exert influence primarily through their own personal qualities (e.g., self-confidence and charisma). As defined by some experts, charismatic leaders have a “dark side” – e.g., they may expect unquestioning loyalty, devotion, and obedience from followers.
An organizational psychologist finds that his newly developed selection test has different validity coefficients for male and female applicants and that the difference is statistically significant.‭ ‬This suggests that the test has:
differential validity

A test has differential validity when its validity coefficient for one group is different from its validity coefficient for another group.

A test has discriminant (divergent) validity when it has low correlations with tests that measure different traits, characteristics, or abilities. Discriminant validity provides evidence of a test's construct validity.

A test has convergent validity when it correlates highly with tests that measure the same trait. Convergent validity provides evidence of construct validity.
needs analysis_job analysis, and job evaluation

Training program development begins with a needs analysis (also known as a needs assessment), which usually consists of three components: an organizational analysis, a job analysis, and a person analysis.

A job evaluation is conducted to determine the appropriate compensation for a job.
Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model
proposes that a leader is most effective when his/her leadership style matches subordinates' ability and motivation (willingness to accept responsibility).

A telling style is most effective for employees low in both ability and motivation.

A selling style is most effective for employees who are low in ability and high in motivation.

a participative leadership style is most effective when subordinates have high levels of ability and low levels of motivation.

A delegating style is most effective for employees who are high in both ability and motivation.
organizational commitment
Two types of organizational commitment are distinguished – continuance commitment and affective commitment. Of these, affective commitment is most predictive of work-related outcomes (satisfaction, motivation, turnover)

affective commitment is least predictive of productivity
Expectancy theory (VIE)
Expectancy theory predicts that employee motivation is a function of three factors: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.

Valence refers to the value a worker places on the outcomes that will be provided for successful performance. When these outcomes have positive valence, this increases the worker's motivation to perform.

instrumentality refers to an employee’s beliefs about the link between performance and outcomes e.g. belief that successful performance will lead to certain rewards.

expectancy refers to an employee's belief that high effort will lead to successful performance.
The Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative (decision-making) model

V8 tree
includes a decision tree that poses eight questions related to the situation. The leader’s answers to these questions indicate the optimal leadership style.
rater biases
Halo, leniency

Rater biases can be alleviated by using relative rating scales such as the forced distribution scale.

The leniency bias is a type of rater bias that involves giving ratees high ratings on each dimension of performance regardless of their actual performance.

Likert scales are very susceptible to the leniency bias and other rater biases.
Job applicants complain because the selection procedure used by a company does not appear to measure knowledge or skills that are relevant to the job.‭ ‬Based on this information,‭ ‬you can conclude that the selection procedure lacks‭ _______ ‬validity.
face validity

Face validity is not an actual type of test validty but refers to the extent to which a test “looks valid” to examinees.

Content validity refers to the extent to which a test measures the content or behavior domain it was designed to measure. It is usually established by having subject matter experts use a systematic method for determining if test items are a thorough and accurate sample of the content or behavior domain. e.g. EPPP
Trainability tests
As their name implies, trainability tests are used to determine if individuals will benefit from training

Trainability tests are similar to work samples except they are given to people who currently do not have sufficient skills or knowledge to perform the job. They are used to determine if a job applicant is likely to benefit from training e.g. work samples that incorporate a structured period of learning and evaluation.
Use of the Taylor-Russell tables would indicate that the decision-making accuracy of a selection test that has a‭ ‬low to moderate‭ ‬validity coefficient is‭ ‬greatest when:
the selection ratio is‭ ‬.10‭ ‬and the base rate is‭ ‬.50.

The Taylor-Russell Tables provide information on a test’s decision-making accuracy for various combinations of base rates, selection ratios, and validity coefficients

A test with a low or moderate validity coefficient can improve decision-making accuracy when the selection ratio is low (e.g., .10) and the base rate is moderate (near .50).
Herbert Simon"s two models of individual decision-making:
1. the rational-economic model 2. the bounded rational (administrative) model.

According to Simon, limited time and resources require decision-makers to be less than totally rational. Specifically, rather than considering all alternatives before making a decision, they consider alternatives only until they encounter one that meets minimum requirements of acceptability.
Hersey and Blanchard distinguish between two aspects of employee maturity:
1. Job maturity refers to the employee's knowledge and skills
2. psychological maturity refers to the employee's self-confidence and willingness to assume responsibility.

Hersey and Blanchard propose that a leader is most effective when his/her behavior matches the employee's level of maturity.