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43 Cards in this Set

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What species is very sensitive to bromethalin?
Cats
What species is resistant to bromethalin?
Guinea pigs (can't demethylate)
What are the acute high dose clinical signs of bromethalin?
mm tremors, seizures (sound and light induced), hyperthermia, death, rigor
What are the low dose clinical signs of bromethalin?
(12-72 hrs) CNS depression, coma, anisocoria, hindlimb ataxia, paralysis, extensor rigidity, decerebrate posture
How do you diagnose bromethalin toxicity?
History, white matter edema/vacuolization, bromethalin or metabolites in fat, brain, liver
What are the treatments for bromethalin?
1. Decon (emetics, repeated AC)
2. Cerebral edema=mannitol, dx, furosemide
3. Gingko biloba
Decribe the mechanism of action of bromethalin.
GI abs--demethylated in liver by P450--biliary excretion--enterohepatic recirc
Uncouples ox phosphorylation in mitochondria (decr. ATP)--myelin splitting, cerebral edema, increase ICP
Define the mechanism of action of strychnine.
Competitive glycine inhibitor: blocks inhibitory Renshaw cells in CNS=cholinergic excitation
What are the clinical signs of strychnine?
rapid onset of mm tremors, seizures, tonic extensor rigidity, "sawhorse stance", opisthotonus, resp. paralysis
How do you diagnose strychnine toxicity?
History, chemical analysis of stomach contents, liver, kidney, urine.
What is the treatment for strychnine?
1. gastric lavage and AC (NO emetic)
2. seizures: valium, pentobarbitol
3. mm relaxants: methocarbamol, 1/2 quickly, rest slow to effect
Describe the mechanism of action of Zinc phosphide.
converted to phosphine gas in acid stomach--cytotoxic to lungs--pulmonary edema and neuro effects
What are the clinical signs of zinc phosphide?
Rapid=respiratory + CNS, vomiting, seizures, pulmonary edema
Delayed=liver/renal disease
How do you diagnose zinc phosphide toxicity?
History, chemical analysis of stomach contents and phosphine odor
What is the treatment for zinc phosphide?
1. No AC (it is a small molecule)
2. No emetic (it is corrosive)
3. NaHCO3 lavage to decrease hydrolysis
4. Seizures: valium, pentobarbitol
What is the mechanism of action of anticoagulant rodenticides?
Inhibits VitK epoxide reductase=depletion of VitK dependent coag factors
What are the VitK dependent Coag Factors?
II, VII, IX, X,
How do you diagnose anticoag rodenticide toxicity?
History, prolonged ACT, OSPT, APTT, (PT 1st)
anemia, hproteinemia, +/- schistocytes, hfibrinogenemia, thrombocytopenia, increased FDPs
What is the treatment for small dose anticoag rodenticide?
Emetics + AC
Monitor for clinical signs
+/- Vitamin K if needed
What is the treatment for >1/10 lethal dose of anticoag rodenticide?
1. VitK1 (oral>inj, loading dose, then SID) will correct coagulopathy w/in 12-48 hrs
2. 1st gen: 7-10dd VitK tx.
3. 2nd gen: 21-30dd VitK tx.
4. IV fluids, O2
5. PCV<15%=transfuse
What is a 1st generation anticoag rodenticide?
Warfarin, dicoumarol (clover based)
How do you calculate the exposure dose of warfarin?
find this out???
What is a 2nd generation anticoag rodenticide?
Brodifacoum, diphacinone
more potent and persisitent
What is the treatment for sticky traps?
Clip and bathe
What is the mechanism of cholecalciferol toxicity?
VitD
absorbed--activated in liver, kidney--hydroxalated metabolites to GIT and bone--increase Ca absorption and Ca mobilization
Hcalcemia, Hphosphatemia, dystrophic calcification
How much VitD is in cholecalciferol?
Throw packs have 10X daily dog dose
What are the clinical signs of cholecalciferol toxicity?
24hr=asymptomatic
>24 hrs=GI, anorexia, constipation, colinc, vomiting (hematemesis), mm wkness
24-48 hrs=renal, Hcalcemia/hphosphatemia, azotemia, proteinuria, glucosuria, hyposthenuria
How do you diagnose cholecalciferol toxicty?
Hypercalcemia
serum cholecalciferol (2wks)
rads (mineralization)
Path (hemorrhagic ge, myocardial degeneration, diffuse mineralization of lung, kidney, atria, stomach
What is the short term tx. for cholecalciferol?
<4 hrs=emetics, AC + SC
What is the treatment for cholecalciferol?
caliuresis
.9% saline + furosemide
Prednisone
*if symptomatic=add calcitonin SQ and pamidronate disodium to decrease bone resorption, low Ca diet, decrease sunlight, +/- peritoneal dialysis
How long do you treat for cholecalciferol?
Treat until Ca returns to normal for 72 hrs
What are the ddx for cholecalciferol toxicity/Hcalcemia?
Neoplasia, primary HPTH, secondary HPTH, feed error, juvenile Hcalcemia, rodenticides
What is the risk of teflon?
overheating, release noxious gases, mostly in birds
>550F
What are the clinical signs of teflon exposure?
sudden death, dyspnea, seizures/neuro (hypoxia)
lungs dark red/hemorrhagic
What is the origin of organic dusts?
bedding, feed, hay, silage, fecal material (indoors)
What are the clinical signs of organic dust exposure toxicity?
Waxing and waning
Heaves, COPD, RAO
decreased performance, increased lower resp. dz.
What is the treatment for organic dusts?
Feed pelleted feeds
reduce dust
What are the features of ozone?
pungent "after rain" odor
highly reactive oxidant gas
highly toxic
What are the clinical signs of ozone?
airway irritation/inflammation, increased airway responsiveness, bronchiolitis, decreased mucociliary clearance, secondary infections
How do you prevent ozone toxicity?
decrease exercise and outside exposure on high ozone days
What is the toxicity of ozone?
O2 in presence of volatile organic compounds + sunlight=O3
penetrates small airways
increased hospital admission, mortality in humans (worsens resp. dz.)
Characteristics of CO?
odorless, colorless
from incomplete combustion (car/boat exhaust, kerosene/propane heater, charcoal grills, house fires)
What is the mechanism of CO toxicity?
shifts O2-Hgb dissociation curve to left (prevents peripheral O2 dissociation)
bright red blood