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26 Cards in this Set

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What are some targets of toxins?
Organs, cells, some macromolecules.
Not all lethal, but can cause disease, damamge genetic alteration.
What is the definition of a poison?
Any substance capable of producing an undesirable effect in a biological system seriously effecting function or producing death.
Toxicity can depend on?
Environmental concentration recieved
properties of toxicant
frequency of exposure
length of exposure
What does LD50 mean?
it means the amount required to kill 50% of the population
what routes can poison be admin? listed form most seriously toxic
IV
inhalational
intraperitoneal
subcutaneous
IM
intradermal
oral
Name some commonly effected target organs?
Liver
Kidney
Lungs
Neural tissue
Myocardium
Bone marrow
Intestinal mucosa
How can poisons effect cells?
interfere with receptor-ligand binding
interfere with membrane fn
interfere with energy prodn
bind to biomolecules
Name some types of poisons?
Drugs
Industrial/ Argicul/Pesticides
Environmental
Natural toxins eg snake venom
Household chemicals
5 Types of drug overdose?
(Intentional/accidental)
paediatric
drug abuse
iatrogenic
occupational
environmental
Generic S/S
Severe throat pain
difficulty breathing
burns on lips/mouth
sudden behaviour change
nausea vomiting
convulsions/ ACS
Treatment strategies
non specific: ventilation, <absorption, maintain bp, >elimination of poison.
Specific: consider individual poison, ie antidote?
Preventing absorption
Most satisfactory, <severity of toxicity, >success if prompt.
Gastric Lavage: empties stomach, large pills not removed.
Activated charcoal: non specific, absorbs wide variety
Enhancing elimination
elimination takes place from bld
Renal alkaline diuresis
Haemodialysis.
Haemoperfusion:bld percolates thru charcoal cartridge.
Specific antidotes, how can they work?
receptor antagonists
alter drug metabolism
physiologic antagonists
bind drug/Chelators:used for heavy metals
Organophosphates
SLUD syndrome
treat with Atropine
Receptor antagonists
Naloxone: reverses narcotics
Flumazenil: reverses bezodiaz
Oxygen: competes with CO for Hb binding
Drug specific antidotes
can bind drug in serum and move it out of tissues
NATURAL TOXINS
snake venom
Proteins
neurotoxic, haemolytic, some also myotoxic.
symptoms of envenomation
headache, nausea, vomiting, abdo pain, collapse, ACS, Pain, blurred vision, slurred speech, muscle weakness
Antivenom what do we have it for?
Tiger snake
Taipan
Brown snake
Jellyfish
Box jelltfish sting S/S?
cardiorespiratory arrest/ arryth
difficulty breathing,speech
severe pain
extensive skin lesions
treatment?
Vinegar to help stop stinging, then remove tentacles.
Box jellyfish antivenom
Medications as toxins- adverse drug reactions
eg aspirin-tinnitus, possible respir alkalosis and metab acidosis
plant toxins eg
Castor oil:vomiting, diarrhoea, haemolysis
Rhubarb leaf: vomiting/ cramps
Penut moulds: liver toxins
Insecticides
DDT
Parathion
Cholinesterase inhibitors
Nicotine
Alcohol
fatal does = 300-400mls pure ethanol
treat:gastric lavage, emesis, etc.