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45 Cards in this Set

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What is the metabolism of carbamates?
no metabolic activation
What is the metabolism of the inactive form of organophosphates?
they are metabolized by MFOs to active form
What is the first step in the metabolism of ChE inhibitors?
hydrolysis by ChEase
What is the first step in the metabolism of ChE inhibitors remove and what is induced?
Anticholinesterase adn ChEase and it induces a toxic effect
What is the MOA of ChE inhibitor metabolism?
inhibition of AChEase and other ChEases by accumulation of ACh in synaptic gap and increased activation of nicotinic and muscarnic cholinergic receptors by ACh
Where does metabolism take place in mammals?
all autonomic ganglia, all postganglionic parasympathetic neuroeffector junctions, neuromuscular junction, and CNS
What is the effect of phosphorylated cholinesterase on aging?
increases stability with time, and is irreversible
What type of aging is is least stable and reversible?
Pre-"aging"
What compounds are used to dephosphorylate ChEase?
oxine compounds
What are the muscarinic clinical signs of intoxication?
(DUMBBELS)
Diarrhea
Urinary incontinence
Miosis
Bradycardia
Bronchial spasm and secretion
Emesis
Lacrimation
Salivation
What are the nicotinic clinical signs of intoxication?
twitching, generalized spasms, and muscle weakness and paralysis
What CNS clinical signs are present with intoxication?
hyperexcitablity and respiratory depression
What clinical signs are seen with food animals that show CNS intoxification?
increase excitability and seizures are rare
What clinical signs are seen with cats and dogs that show CNS intoxification?
hyperreflexive and hyperactive, and seizures
Why is death a sequela to CNS intoxification?
because of bradycardia and arrhythmias
What CNS signs are seen in horses with intoxication?
dramatic effects on the GI tract
What four factors is labored breathing and salivation associated with when it comes to diagnosis?
urea toxicosis
feed overload in bovine
infections
nutritional disorders
What is measured and detected to aid in diagnosing toxicity?
measure ChEase activity
detection of AntiAChEase in feed
detection of AntiAChEase in tissue
Why is it important to diagnosis throughly?
in order not to confuse with other diseases and toxicity states
What drugs are used for the treatment of intoxification?
atropine
diphenylhydramine
pralidoxine= 2PAM
barbiturates
benzodiazepines
Which drug block ACh effects at muscarinic sites?
Atropine
Which drug block ACh effects at nicotenic sites?
NOT atropine, diphenylhydramine is more effective
What drug is not used with Atropine?
diphenylhydramine
How does Pralidoxime work as a treatment of intoxication?
acts on OP-cholinesterase complex releases OP residue and reactivates cholinesterase
What effect does 2PAM have for treatment if aging has occured?
No effect
Which drug is not used for carbamate poisoning?
2PAM or Pralidoxime
What are the drugs used to control seizures?
barbiturates (phenobarbital) and benzodiazepimes (diazepam)
What means of detoxification is especially important in ruminants?
activated charcoal
Bathing, artifical respiration, and correct acid-base disturbances are examples of...?
treatment of intoxication
What compounds are used in the control of malaria
chlorinated hydrocarbons
What is administered to correct acid-base disturbances?
Na-bicarb
What four ways are chlorinated hydrocarbons different from organophosphates?
elimination rate
storage capacity
ease fo dermal absorption
environmental persistence
What are the three chlorinated hydrocarbons?
chlorinated ethane derivatives
chlorinated cyclodienes
hexachlorocyclohexanes
What are the chlorinated ethane derivatives?
DDT and Methoxychlor
What are the chlorinated cyclodienes?
Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin
Heptachlor
Chlordane
Toxaphene
What are the Hexachlorocyclohexanes?
Lindane
In what year was DDT insecticidal properties noted and when was it first used?
1939, first used in 1940
What are the disadvantages of DDT?
induces hepatic toxicity
alters drug metabolism
alters steroid metabolism
carcinogenic
Is DDT used currently?
No, it was last used in 1972 because of human health hazard
What does DDT stand for?
Diphenyl aliphatics
What is used as a replacement for DDT?
Methoxychlor
How does DDT and Methoxychlor differ?
Methoxychlor is less toxic and more rapidly eliminated than DDT
What is the LD50 for an oral dose of DDT and Methoxychlor for a rat?
DDT- less than 100mg/kg
Methoxychlor- 5g/kg
What is the half life for DDT and Methoxychlor for a rat?
DDT- 6 months
Methoxychlor- 2 weeks
What is the advantage of DDT?
Cheap and Effective