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174 Cards in this Set

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_______ can be defined as the knowledge of poisons including their chemical properties, identification, biologic effects, and treatment of disease conditions caused by poisons.
Toxicology
________ is any solid, liquid, or gas that when introduced into or applied to the body can interfere with the life processes of cells of the organism by its own inherent qualities without acting mechanically.
Poison
____________ is the disease state that results from exposure to a poison or toxicant.
Toxicosis
__________ means poison.
Toxicant
________ is the amount of a poison that under a specific set of conditions will cause toxic effects.

- usually expressed as mg/kg
Toxicity
_________ is the amount of toxicant required to produce death in 50% of exposed animals in a given period of time.
LD50
________ is the amount of toxicant required to produce death in 10% if exposed animals in a given period of time.
LD10
________ usually means the effects of a single dose or multiple doses during a 24 hour period.
Acute toxicity
__________ usually means the effects procuced by prolonged exposure to a toxicant, usually 3 months or longer.
Chronic toxicity
_______ usually means effects produced by exposure to toxicant of longer than 24 hours but less than 3 months.
Subacute toxicity
_______is likelyhood of poisoning.
hazard
___________ is individualized response to a toxicant, a variation due to the inherent differences in biochemical and membrane properties among animals.
biologic variation
__________ is relatively low background levels of a toxicant becomes toxicant in higher levels of the food chain.
biologic magnification
_______is a common method for expressing concentrations of toxicants in feeds, water, animal tissue, etc.
PPM-parts per million
_________ is a method used for expressing concentrations of toxicants.
PPB- parts per billion
__________ is the conversion in the body of a relatively non-toxic compound to a toxic compound.
Lethal synthesis
________ means animals may be poisoned by eating other animals poisoned by toxic compounds.
Biological Chain Reaction
______ are poisons that originate from biological processes.
Biotoxins
Calculation for feed exposure is:
ppm = mg/kg body wt divided by the % of body weight eaten per day.
5 criteria for making an accurate diagnosis:
history
clinical signs
postmortem findings
chemical analyses
lab animal tests
what can you do to keep an animal from further absorbing toxins?
Induce emesis (hydrogen peroxide)
Name a substance that can be given to physically bind an ingested toxin.
activated charcoal
3 sources of nitrates:
water, fertilizer, plants (sorghum)
Plants with nitrates?
sorghum
pigweed
lamb's quarters
jimsonweed
nightshades
oats
corn
soybean
alfalfa
T/F Drought conditions increase nitrate concentrations?
True
T/F Cloudy days increase nitrates?
True
Highest content of nitrate is in?

(roots, stems, or leaves?)
Roots > stems > leaves
Highest content of cyanide?

(roots, stems, leaves?)
Leaves > stems > roots
________ converts ferrous iron to ferric iron resulting in methemoglobinemia.
Nitrite
signs of nitrite toxicosis?
dyspnea, brown mm, weakness, tremors, convulsions, vomiting
T/F Nitrate is associated with abortion storms.
True
Plants with cyanide?
sorghums corn elderberry cherries, peach, apricot
_________ leaves as grass cures (so its not in hay)
cyanide
signs of cyanide toxicosis:
excitement, tremors, dyspnea, gasping for breath, bright mm, convulsions
6 things needed for mycotoxins to grow:
substrate
temp
moisture
humidity
fungus
stress
_________ means mycotoxin produced in feed and ingested by animal.
mycotoxicosis
___________ is invasion of living tissue by fungus.
mycoses
T/F If there is a fungus found then there will definetly be a mycotoxin present as well.
False
Name 10 mycotoxins common in vet. medicine. You can do it!!!
safe td todz--->
Slaframine
Aflatoxin
Fumonisis
Ergot

Tremorgen
Deoxynivalenol

Trichothecene
Ochratoxin
Dicoumarol
Zearalenone
4 factors effecting plant's toxicity
Species
stage of growth
part of plant
conditions of plant
6 animal factors affecting plant toxicity:
species of animal
age
size
condition
amount ingested
time period of ingestion
5 plants inhibiting oxygen uptake:
Sweet potato
corn
Lush
Rape (kale, turnip)
perilla mint
All ____ have square stems.
Mints
Economically the most important plant causing losses in cattle from East TX to Atlantic?
Perilla mint
Toxic principle of perilla mint?
ketones
Parts of perilla mint that's toxic?
ALL of it!!!
Species effected by perilla mint?
ruminants (major), horses (minor)
Signs of perilla mint toxicosis?
AIP- atypical interstitial pneumonia
Toxic principle of corn?
tryptophan
Sign associated with corn?
AIP atypical interstitial pneumonia
Plant hindering oxygen transport?
Red Maple (acer rubrum)
signs of red maple toxicosis?
We know this!!!
Methemoglobinemia, icterus, brown/red urine and death
9 plants toxic to G.I. (thats gastrointestinal tract, not GI Joe)
Castor bean
cocklebur
Coffee bean
Pokeweek
Black Locust
Bladderpod
Buttercup
spurge family
dumbcane
Nonspecific GI irritation plants: 8
Nightshades
Black nightshade
horsenettle
potato
silverleaf nightshade
tomato
Mt. Laurel
Walnut
3 compounds toxic in castor bean?
agglutinin, ricin, ricinin
Toxic principles of black locust:
robin, robinin, robitin
Fancy schmancy name for pokeweed
Phytolaca americana
species most likely poisoned by pokeweed:
swine and children
Fancy schmancy name for coffee bean (sesbania, rattlebox)
Sesbania spp.
Toxic part of bladderpod:
seeds 1-2% of body weight is fatal
Fancy schmancy name for buttercup
Ranunculus spp.
Toxic principles for buttercup
ranunculin, protoanemonin
Classic sign for spurge family?
Vomiting "spurge will purge"
Toxic principle of Cocklebur?
Carboxyatractyloside (CAT)
Toxic parts of dumbcane?
All of it.
Key sign for Azalea or Mt. Laurel (Heath family)?
Vomition (In all species)
Toxic principle of walnut trees?
Juglan
Sign of walnut toxicosis?
vasoconstriction, laminitis
_______ causes damage to brain and spinal cord.
Locoweed (go figure)
2 plants that cause increased stimulation at receptor sites?
Jimsonweed and Horse Tail
How much jimsonweed does it take to kill a cow?
.1% of bodyweight
3 toxic principles of jimsonweed
hyoscyamine, scopolamine and atropine
Signs of jimsonweed toxicosis?
GI atony, dry mm, dilated pupils, delirium, hallucinations
Where is zearalenone and what are its signs?
Corn in cribs

signs: estrogenic activity
_______ is often accompanied by zearalenone.
deoxynivalenol
_______ is usually stored in grains, corn, peanuts.
Aflatoxin
______ is a very potent carcinogen.
Aflatoxin b2
___________ causes hemorrage in liver, fatty change, and necrosis.
aflatoxin
fancy schmancy name for ergot
claviceps purpura on oats and claviceps paspali on dallis grass
________ toxicity seldom causes problems while growing, but does cause problems when concentrated in grain.
ergot
Claviceps purpura (ergot) causes constriction or dilation of vessels?
constriction
Claviceps paspali causes:
CNS effects
signs of ergotism in animals?
sloughing of ear tips, tail, and limbs and foot.
6 differentials of ergot:
fescue foot, foot rot, selenium toxicosis, frostbite, laminitis, trauma
Substrate for fumonisin?
moldy corn
lesion caused by fumonisin
liquefactive necrosis of cerebral hemispheres
________ occurs from cattle and horses grazing on red clover
slaframine
Slaframine toxicosis must be differentiated from?
organophosphates
Big sign for dicoumarol toxicosis?
hemorrhaging due to tying up of vitamin k
________ causes tremors, ataxia, falling and paralysis.
TREMORgen
__________ is a mycotoxin that causes renal damage.
Ochratoxin
4 syndromes of fescue toxicity?
fescue foot
poor performance
fat necrosis
dystocia
________ may stimulate dopamine and antagonize serotonin
fescue
substrate for tremorgen?
rye or bermuda
substrate for dicoumarol
sweet clover
main sign associated with aflatoxin
biliary hypertrophy
who is the prettiest girl you know?
Lindsey!!! of course!!!
10 of the food related toxicants:
urea (and non-protein nitrogen)
monensin
lasalocid
iodine
sodium ion
copper
gossypol
fluoride
blue-green algae
phenylarsonic cpds.
lesions with urea toxicosis?
none...tricked you!
ways to diagnose urea:
Rumen pH above 8, and history of feeding urea, colic, front end down, frequent peeing, high rumen ammonia levels.
______ is produced by a fungus and used as an antibiotic for beef cattle and is toxic to dairy cattle, horses, sheep and swine
monensin
must differentiate monensin from:
blister beetle colic, organophosphate, vit. E deficiency
________ is used in the treatment of lumpy jaw and footrot
iodine
Why is iodine toxicity rare?
there is a wide range between the therapeutic dose and the toxic dose.
mechanism of action for iodine?
hyperthyroid
signs of iodine toxicosis
non-productive cough, increased resp. tract secretions, nasal discharge, lacrimation, alopecia around neck
toxicity called "salt poisoning"
sodium ion toxicosis
T/F sodium ion toxicosis is caused from too much salt in feed.
False--it's from water deprivation
signs of sodium ion toxicosis
thirsy, constipated, seizures, comatose
other name for gossypol?
cotton
signs of gossypol toxicosis:
poor doers, ventral edema, poor conception rate, death
lesion from gossypol?
pulmonary edema and myocardial necrosis, congested liver
_______ results in mottled enamel, brown teeth and uneven wear.
fluoride
what part of dumbcane is toxic?
all of it
species effected by yellow-star thistle?
equine
______ causes involuntary chewing.
Yellow star thistle
how much jimsonweed is lethal to cattle?
.1% body weight
toxic principles of jimsonweed?
hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and atropine
6 plants that stimulate depression
nightshades
horse nettle
silverleaf nightshade
black nightshade
potato
tomato
Lupine most likely effects what species
sheep
toxic principle of lupine?
quinolizidine
Urea should not exceed __% in your total grain ration.
1%
signs of lupine toxicity
head pressing, seizures, tetragenic effect
________ results in more deaths than any other plant in western range.
Larkspur
________ is the toxic principle for larkspur.
Methyllycaconitine
what parts of milkweed are toxic?
all parts
2 toxic principles of milkweed
cardenolides and calitoxin
milkweeds cause what signs
cardiotoxic and neurotoxic
Urea toxicosis is actually _______ toxicosis.
Ammonia
Toxic principles of water hemlock?
cicutoxin and cicutol
fancy schmancy name for water hemlock
cicuta maculata
Signs of water hemlock toxicosis?
salivation, muscle fasciculations, violent seizures, death within 15-30 minutes, mydriasis, delirium
what are the three systems effected by morning glory?
digestive, neurologic, and resp.
Toxic principles of morning glory?
lysergic acid (LSD) found in seeds and leaves
Toxic parts of buckeye?
leaves,fruit, bark
What species does buckeye effect?
all
Toxic principles of buckeye?
Aesculin
Signs of buckeye toxicity?
sawhorse stance, seizures, mydriasis, drunken cattle
What is yellow jessamine confused with?
honeysuckle
What parts are toxic and species effected by yellow jessamine?
all, all
What is the pathogenesis of yellow jessamine?
paralysis at nerve endings
Parts toxic and species effected by White snakeroot?
all, all
Toxic principle of white snakeroot?
Trematol (5-10% bw)
How is white snakeroot eliminated from body?
milk
pathogenesis of white snakeroot?
cardiotoxic in horses, metabolic derangement, hepatotoxic in goats
What does poison hemlock smell like?
"mousy" odor
What species is effected by poison hemlock?
all
Pathogenesis of poison hemlock?
blocks autonomic ganglia and motor end plates of skeletal muscles, toxins lost when dried
_________ resembles organophosphate toxicity.
slaframine and poison hemlock
3 plants toxic to cardiovascular system?
Japanese Yew, Foxglove, Oleander
Toxic principles for foxglove?
Digoxin and digitoxin
Species effected by oleander?
All
Lethal dose of Oleander?
.005%-.015% bw
Toxic parts of Japanese Yew?
All parts toxic, Taxine is toxic principle
3 plants causing liver toxicity?
Crotolaria, bitter sneezeweed, lantana
Species effected and parts toxic of crotolaria?
all, all
Toxic principles of crotolaria?
Pyrrolozidine alkaloids (pa)
Animal most susceptible to bitter sneezeweed?
sheep
Toxic principle of bitter sneezeweed?
dugaldin
"Spewing sickness" is caused from?
bitter sneezeweed
Special feature of lantana?
square stem
________ called "ham and eggs" causes sensitization.
lantana
2 plants effecting hematopoietic system?
yellow/white sweet clover
Bracken fern
_______ hosts molds that convert coumarin to dicoumarol.
yellow/white sweet clover
Species effected by bracken fern?
equine and ruminants (100% bw)
2 nephrotoxic plants?
Oak, pigweed
Where is the toxin in oak?
acorns, young leaves
Toxic principles of oak?
tannins
toxic principles of pigweed
oxalates, nitrates
2 plants effecting skin
hairy vetch, st. john's wort
toxic principle of st. john's wort?
hypericin- activated in UV light, photosensitizing agent
________ causes dermatitis, thickening of skin, pruritis, alopecia
hairy vetch
_________ causes abortions and infertility.
ponderosa pine
3 plants causing fetal death and teratogenesis?
Lupine, tobacco, false hellebore