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19 Cards in this Set

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Which is not a correct statement about acute Toxicity?
A. involves a sudden onset of symptoms
B. symptoms typically last less than 24 hours
C. RESULTS IN CELLULAR DAMAGE THAT IS IRREVERSIBLE
D. the organism ususally recovers from the adversee effects
E. may involve local or systemic toxic response
What is Toxicity?
-the state of being poisonous
-adverse effects or symptoms produced by poisons or toxicants in organisms
Toxicity will vary according to _____________
1) duration and location of exposure to the toxicant

2) species specific responses of the organism
what are the 4 distinct types of toxicity that characterize the duration & location of the poisonous state?
1)ACUTE toxicity

2)CHRONIC toxicity

3)LOCAL toxicity

4)SYSTEMIC
Chronic toxicity involves ___
-Symptoms of long, continuous duration
-permanent nature - irreversible cellular damage in organism
- with severve damage result is death of organism
Occurs when symptoms are restricted to the site of initial exposure to the toxicant
Local Toxicity
Systemic toxicity
when the adverse effects occur at sites far removed from the initial site of exposure
with this form of toxocity it is often difficult to establish a cause and effect relationship:
Delayed Toxicity
toxicokinetics is the study of all but which one of the following?
absorption
biotransformation
distribution
elimination
MECHANISM OF TOXICITY
of the many ways commonly used to classify toxicants, the categories of stimulants, inhibitors and blockers best characterize which classification scheme?
Mechanism of action
which one of the following represents a correct quantification of a dose as used in an IN VIVO toxicity test?
10mg
10mg/animal
10mg/kg (correct)
10mg
10mg/ml
what is the correct quantification of a dose as used in an IN VITRO toxicity test?
10mg/mL
an example of a logarithmic dose sequence
0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000mg/kg
__________ examines the mechanism by which a toxicant has its unique cellular effect within the organism.
Toxicodynamics
Toxicity is determined when on the administration of a substance, an observable and well defined ____________ is identified.
end-effect
why is the correct selection of a test organism critical to a toxicity test?
so that the conclusion based on that test organism will provide the relevant information as related to humans.
Carbon tetrachloride - CCL4
high exposure [], for short time
results in toxicity
minor eye & throat irritations
______________ is the study of five time dependent processes related to toxicants as they interact with living organisms.
Toxicokinetics
what are the 5 time dependent processes in the study of toxicokinetics?
absorption
distribution
storage
biotransformation
elimination