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20 Cards in this Set

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What are some targets of toxins?
Organs, cells, some macromolecules.
Not all lethal, but can cause disease, damamge genetic alteration.
What is the definition of a poison?
Any substance capable of producing an undesirable effect in a biological system seriously effecting function or producing death.
Toxicity can depend on?
Environmental concentration recieved
properties of toxicant
frequency of exposure
length of exposure
Substances the produce adverse effects of any nature;chemical or physical
Specific proteins produced by living organisms.
mushrooms or tetanus
most exhibit immediate effects
2 types of toxic substances
Discrete toxic chemical
Mixture of toxic chemicals
Lead chromate discrete
gasoline mixture
Organic toxins
Substances that were originally derived from living organisms
contain carbon and often large molecules can be synthesized as well as obtained from natural sources
Inorganic Toxins
Specific chemicals not derived from living organisms
Systemic toxins
One that effects the entire body or many organs rather than specific sites
Potassium cyanide effects virtually every cell and organ in the body, interferes with oxygen uptake
Organ toxins
Effects specific tissues or organs while producing damage to the whole body
Lead targets nervous system, kidney, and hematopoietic sys.
4 types of cells
Basic structure (cuboidal)
Tissue type (hepatocytes)
Germinal cells (ova & Sperm)
Somatic (non reproduction)
Amount of substances administered at one time
4 types of dosages
Exposure dose
Absorbed dose
Administered dose
Total dose
Exposure Dose
Amount of Xenobiotic encountered in the environment
Absorbed Dose
The actual amount of the exposed dose that enters the body
Administered Dose
Quantity administered usually orally or injected
Total Dose
Sum of all individual doses
Total dose decreases probability that total dose will cause toxicity
Body can repair itself from effects of each subtoxic dose
Dose response relationship
Establishes causality that the chemical has induced observed effects. Establishes lowest dose where an induced effect occurs(threshold effect). Determines rate at which injury builds up
Toxic effect occurs where the body has ability to detoxify a Xenobiotic or repair toxic injury if dosage is exceeded