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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Organisms that live on or in a second organism
Parasites
Parasites that play beneficial roles
Normal flora
Parasites that bring about damage or harm
Pathogens
OUtcome of the host-parasite relationship depends on?
Pathogencity of parasite and resistance of host
Growth of microorganisms in the host, does not always lead to injury
infection
Infections with no outward signs
Subclinical infections
Growth of microorganisms in the host, where host is harmed in some way
Disease
These are favorable environment for microbial growth due to they high amount of organic nutrients and growth factors
Animal bodies
When each region of the animal body differs chemically and physically from other regions
Microenvironments
These are almost always found on tissues exposed to outside world
microbes
Stages of infection
Entry, colonization and growth, spread, Exit
many microorganisms have surface structures that bind to receptors on animal cells this is called
specific adherence
Fimbriae, Glycocalyx, viral spikes and flagella are all examples of
Microbe surface structures
Generalized (systemic) infections are characterized by
organisms pass through lymphatic vessels and are deposited in lymph nodes
Prescence of bacteria in blood?
Bacteremia
Enzymes involved in invasion
Hyaluronidase, Collagenase, and Streptokinase
This enzyme is produced by streptococci and staphylococci and breaks down hyluronic acid (tissue cement)
Hyaluronidase
This enzyme is produced by clostridia that cause gas gangrene, it breaks down collagen network that support tissue
Collagenase
This enzyme is produced by streptococci and it breaks down fibrin clots formed by host in an effort to wall off microorganisms
Streptokinase
When organisms do not spread from site of infection this is know as a
localized infections
boils, carbuncles, or pimples are examples of
localized infections
Portals for exit of microorganisms from the body include:
aerosols from respiratory system, fecal matter, vaginal discharge and semen, infected urine, blood, skin cells
Proteins produced by some bacterial species and released extracellulary are
Exotoxins
These are highly toxic, highly specific as to "target cell" affected and can be fatal in small doses
Exotoxins
Neurotoxins affect
Nervous system
Botulinum Toxin is an example of an
Exotoxin
Enterotoxins affect
Gastorintestine
Nephrotoxins affect
kidneys
Two types of Hemolysins
Phosphalipases and leukocidins
These endotoxins attack cell membranes and cause cell lysis
Hemolysins
Phosphalipases ?
attack phospholipids
Leukocidins?
lyze white blood cells, decrease host resistance
These toxins are part of intergral process of cell
endotoxins
This toxin is contained in the LPS of outer cell wall, is released in large amounts only when cells lyse
endotoxins
Gas Gangrene, tetanus, botulism, diphtheria, and scarlet fever are representative diseases of
Exotoxins
Typhoid fever, urinary tract infections, and meningococcal meningitis are representative diseases of
endotoxins
Toxicity is much lower than exotoxins, but can cause death in very large doses
Endotoxins
The relative ability of a parasite to cause disease
Virulence
Determined by the invasiveness of the organism and its toxigenicity
Virulence
When pathogens are kept in culture for long periods, virulence is often decreased or completely lost
Attenuation
These strains can be used for vaccines
Attenuated