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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are 6 signs of diabetic retinopathy?
1- microaneurysms
2- hemorrhages
3- exudates
4- cotton wool spots
5- venous beading
6- IRMA (intraretinal microvascular abnormalities)
What are 3 places that neovascularization due to Diabetic retinopathy can occur?
1- NVD (of the optic disc)
2- NVE (elsewhere)
3- NVI (of the iris)

[always record + or - findings]
Is IRMA a "good Thing"? explain...
Kind of a good thing. these vessels are functional and feed the retina-but- it indicates there has been an ischemic event. Therefore, overall IRMA is "bad".
Is Neovascularization a bad thing? Why?
YES!! These vessels are leaky!
Diabetic retinopathy is a ______ disease.
venous
Do dot/blot hemes, exudates, and CSME indicate ischemic events?
No---leaky vessels
What does CSME stand for?
Clinically significant macular edema.
CSME can occur with DR in _____ stage of the disease.
any stage--so look for it!
What 3 types of DR patients need to be referred?
1- CSME
2- proliferative DR
3- borderline cases where you are sure sure what is going on.
How do "you" (not us) treat CSME?
with lasers.
Does HTN Retinopathy cause symptoms?
No, usually asymptomatic
What are 6 changes that you will see iwth HTN Retinopathy?
1- arteriole narrowing
2- arteriovenous crossing changes
3- copper/silver wire
4- cotton-wool spots
5- flame hemes
6- exudates and macular edema
A ________ is a bright refractile plaque in a retinal vessel.
Hollenhorst Plaque.
A hollenhorst plaque is am atheroma of the ________ (ipsi/contra) carotid artery and/or other vessels.
Ipsilateral
In what quadrant(s) will you see retinal hemorrhages/dilated/tortuous in a CRVO?
all 4
Name 2 types of CRVO
1- Ischemic
2- non-ischemic (partial/incomplete)
How can you have vision loss in a CRVO?
when you have macular edema
Name 3 specific vision losses with CRVO.
1- central scotoma (over the macula)
2- generalized depression
3- enlarged blind spot
There are lots of causes of CRVO, Name 3.
1- Atherosclerosis
2- HTN
3- glaucoma
What is it called with you have a sector hemorrhage?
BRVO
A _______ manifests with sudden, painless vision loss.
CRAO
What is the classic sign of a CRAV?
cherry red spot (this is b/c the macula is avascular and is fed by the choroid)
Name 7 risks for ARMD
1- age (>55)
2- gender (F>M)
3- Race (Cauc)
4- +FHx
5- escessive UV
6- smoking
7- high fat and Chl
ARMD is _____ (dry/wet) 90% of the time.
Dry!
What is a prevalent sign of ARMD? Where are these located?
Drusen (very deep= RPE/Bruchs)
What are 3 signs of dry ARMD?
1- drusen
2- pigment mottling
3- geographic atrophy of RPE
T or F: patients with ARMD may have a metamorphopsia or a central scotoma.
True
What are the vitamins that you can recomend a patient with ARMD to take>?
A, C,E, lutein and zinc
What are 3 signs of wet ARMD?
1- CNVM
2- subret heme
3- disciform scarring
Myelinated Nerve Fibers occurs in ___ of the population.
1%
_____ is a continuation of normal myelination anterior to the lamina.
Myelinated nerve fibers
What must you distinguish from myelinated nerve fibers?
cotton wool spots (both are white and feathery looking b/c they both occure at the level of the NFL)
What is easily mistaken as papilledema?
buried nerve head drusen
buried drusen consist of ______ globular deposits.
Ca++- like
T of F: an ONH with buried drusen WILL still have a +SVP.
TRUE (papilledema will NOT have a +svp)
When you are looking for drusen, look for ______.
Flurescence
You will seeing thinning of the ONH rim in ______.
glaucoma
______ is basically pathognomic for glaucoma.
Drance hemes
T or F: a patient SHOULD follow the ISNT rule t o be "normal"
True, you want the inferior to be the thickest
What is a drance heme?
hemorrhage at the disc margin
Will you see peripapillary atrophy in glaucoma?
yes
With a __________, (a benign condition) you will see an elevated nasal disc and depressed temporal disc.
malinserted optic nerve
(NOT the same as tilted disc syndrome)
_______ are transient episodes of serous RPE detachments in the macular area.
Idiopathic Central Serous Choriodopathy (ICSC)
What is the classic patient manifesting a ICSC and what is the classic sign?
20-30 yo male, they see a haze over their vision
Decribe the findings of a patient with ICSC in the following tests:
1- amsler
2- macular photo stress
3- color vision
1- metamorphopsia
2- reduced
3- blue/yelloe defect
Optic neuritis will eventually lead to ______ and an ____.
reduced vision, APD
_____ is an examply of optic neuritis.
AION
What is the most likely etiology of Optic neuritis in:
1- 20-40 yo.
2- 45-55 yo
3- 60+ yo
1- (20-40)Demyelinated disease
2- (45-55) Non-inflammatory (AION)
3- (60+) Inflammatory disease
_____ is a small vessel disease of the ON indicating an imbalance in the pressure-perfusion ratio.
Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuritis
If a person has a macular hole and the vitreous is still attached (- PVD)--is the hole likely to exist unilaterally or bilaterally?
bilateral (this doesnt make a bit of sense to me)
a ___________ will look round, reddish-brown, sharp border with a cuff of intraretinal edema.
Full thicknedd hole
Dominant Familial Drusen is inherited _____. It is ___ (uni/bilateral). What part of the retina is it located?
AD
Bilateral
all over the post pole