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71 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Golgi Complex
Package protein for secretion
How does protein get out of the cell?
golgi complex package fuses with cell wall and protein is released.(exocytosis) Package becomes part of the cell wall.
Organelles responsible for energy production: ATP

Cell powerhouse
What is the purpose of the folds located in the mitochondria?
Increased surface area
Rough ER/Smooth ER
Primarily functions to modify, store, segregate and transport proteins made by ribosomes to other parts of the cell or outside the cell.
Why is the Rough ER rough?
Ribosomes are attatched (studded)
Smooth ER
-attatched to Rough ER
-purpose to twist and turn so that reactive sites are exposed
-changes the config. of protein from Rough ER
-protien factories
-made in the nucleus
-can be free in the cytoplasm or bound to membranes
cell ingesting material to eat

implies destruction
cell takes in materials that it needs
What are the inner fols on the mitochondrial called?
-bags of very very powerful enzymes produced in the cell used to injest waste and foreign material.
-made in the Golgi complex
Cytoskeleton that maintains the 3D shape of the cell
Microtubles and Microfilaments
Rigid, hollow tubes that allow amino aids to travel thru to diff. parts of the cell
No tube, rigid rods to keep cells shape.
Used to injest/encase=inest
Have their own DNA passed down from your maternal side
The sperm and egg are known as_? with how many chromosomes each?

23 chromosomes a piece
The 2 gametes form to make a single cell called a _? with how many chromosomes?

46 chromosomes
A hollow ball of cells known as a _ is formed _ hours after fertilization?

60 hours
The Blastoyst travels down what tube?
What is trisomy 21?
3 of chromosome #21 = Downs Syndrome
Cells that have not gone thru _ are a source of stem cell research beause they haven't decided what they are going to become yet and can be steered.
The cells begin to seperate into 2 layers in the Blastoyst called:
The epiblast and hypoblast layers
Some cells from the _ layer begin to migrate to the center to form

What are the inner fols on the mitochondrial called?
Ectoderm becomes
Skin, mucosa, hair, glands
Mesoderm becomes
CT, blood, bone, cartilage, muscle, nerve
Endoderm becomes
lining tissues, (lines tubes and vessels in the body)and some nerves
Epiblasts form _
Hypoblasts form_
This tissue type covers a surface
the first word used to describe epithelium refers to its_, the second word refers to its_
# of layers

epith. that is thin, fragile and must be in an area where it cean be protected Ex. linings, conjuctiva of the ey
Squamous (fried eggs)
Boxes of cells, can be simple or stratified. Ex. Lines Ducts
Long cells with visible nucleus Ex. lines all sinuses, trachea, brochia 02 and CO2 must be able to pass thru
False columnar epith. nucleus at diff. levels you cant tell where the boudaries are
Ex.Respiratory Tract
cell membrane projections that increase surface area. Usually found on columnar cells.
Ex. Intestines-absorb more nutrients.
cell membrane hairlike projections common in the respiratory tract used to push materials in on direction

also found in the fallopian tube, pushes egg
Unique cells found only in the bladder. multiple layers ntil stressed then only 1-2 layers thick
Transitional Epithelium
Epithelium cannot come in direct contact with what type of tisses below it?
Connective tissue
Juction that bonds the CT and Epith. together
Basement Membrane
Are cells present in the BM?
Deepest layer where epith. reproduce themselves. Tall cells here attatched to the basement membrane.
Basal Layer:

Stratum Basale or Strata Germinativum
Cuboidal shaped cells here that are btwn 3-5 layers thick
Spinus Layer
how many layers in SSE?
this layer is about 2 layers thick. As the cells move up and flatten the nuces dies and keratinhyaline granules beome present
granlar layer
protects skin from trauma
what is the sometimes unmentioned name of the clear layer between the granular layer and the keratin layer?
stratum lucidum
this top layer contains flat, dead keratinized epith.cells
keratin layer or stratum corneum
if the SSE is composed mainly of dead cells how does it receive O2 and nutrients?
blood vessels just below the stratum basale diffuse
why do the cells begin to die in SSE?
as they move up they get further and further away from the food source
what type of tisse is the BM made up of?
its a coagulation of underlying tissue and the basal layer cells
what is missing from persons with skin cancer?
what holds the SSE cells together?

describe how they're held
desmosomes = cell to cell attatchment

each cell contributes half of the attatchment
what holds the basal layer to the BM?

desribe how they're held
hemidesosomes = cell to Bm attatchment

only cell ontribtes to attachment bc BM is not made up of cells=non living
cells with no keratin present
some cells with nucleus resent others with keratin
if there is parakeratin present what would you conclude?
the layers do ot have enough time to create granuals-cells dont have time to die

Commonly found in the mouth
increases the surface area and allows for more SSE to be attatched to the underlying CT
Rete Pegs
Where in the mouth would we NOT find keratinized SSE?
in the gingival sulcus
why is there no keratinized epithelium found in the gingival sulcus?
bc there is no trauma to this epith. no food rubs in this area
what is the brown pigment found in keratinized cells?
melanin comes from specialized cells. Can you find these cel types in the mouth?
clusters of salivary glands
what type of cells are salivary glands?
modiified epith. cells
Can epithelium b in diret contact with CT?
what would be the composition of saliva if was secreted out of the serous gland alveoli?
what would be the composition of saliva if it was secreted out of the mucous gland alveoli?
thick and viscous
this specialized epith. cell has some contractile capability like muscle
myoepithelial cells
this epith. cells lines ducts and each acini. squeees out more saliva when necc. Ex. lemon drop-ots of saliva
myoepithelial cells
ducts are lined with what type of epith.
simple cuboidal epith.